Bearing Witness
The Covid-19 & Inequality History Documentation Project


  1. “Historic Racism to Blame for Higher Covid-19 Risk to Minorities: UK Report.” The Times of India, June 2020,

  2. “Johns Hopkins Report: Covid-19 by the Numbers.” State of Black America,

  3. “How Coronavirus and Race Collide in the U.S.”, August 2020,

  4. “Early Coronavirus Drug Trials Tested Vaccines Mostly on White People; next Phase Aims for Diversity.” CNBC, July 2020,

  5. “Woes Compounded: Covid-19 Exposes America’s Racial Health Gap.” The Economist, April 2020,

  6. “COVID-19 May Not Discriminate Based on Race-but U.S. Health Care Does.” PBS News Hour, April 2020,

  7. “Covid-19 Cases Increasing Dramatically in Prisons.” Equal Justice Initiative, June 2020,

  8. “Data Analyzes COVID-19 Impact on Jail Populations.” CorrectionsOne, June 2020,

  9. “Dear Right-Wing Protesters: Your ’Liberty’ to Swing Your Fist Ends Just Where My Nose Begins.” Daily Kos, April 2020,

  10. Adhikari, Samrachana, and Olugbenga Ogedegbe. “Racial Disparities in COVID-19–Related Deaths Exist Beyond Income Differences in Large U.S. Cities.” NYU Langone News, July 2020,

  11. Albert, Victoria. “People of Color Are Exempt from Oregon County’s Mandatory Mask Order.” CBS News, June 2020,

  12. Aleem, Zeeshan. “New CDC Data Shows Covid-19 Is Affecting African Americans at Exceptionally High Rates.” Vox, April 2020,

  13. Alexander, Elizabeth. “The Trayvon Generation.” The New Yorker, June 2020,

  14. Alexander, Michelle. “Let Our People Go.” The New York Times, May 2020,

  15. Alleyne, Kenneth R. “How Covid-19 Is a Perfect Storm for Black Americans.” The Washington Post, April 2020,

  16. Anderson, Diane. “Black Health Advocates Watch For Covid-19 Funding.” Precinct Reporter Group News, May 2020,

  17. Anderson, Elijah, et al. “Yale Experts on the Parallel Crises of COVID-19 and Systemic Racism.” Office of the President, July 2020,

  18. Aspholm, Roberto. “To Talk About Racial Disparity and COVID-19, We Need to Talk About Class.” Jacobin Magazine, August 2020,

  19. Aubrey, Allison. “Who’s Hit Hardest By COVID-19? Why Obesity, Stress And Race All Matter.” NPR, April 2020,

  20. Awake, Mik. “The Comorbidities of the National Football League.” The New Yorker, July 2020,

  21. Azar, Kristen M. J., et al. “Disparities In Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients In A Large Health Care System In California.” Health Affairs, May 2020, p. 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598.

  22. Bahadur, Nina. “Is COVID-19 Making Black Birth More Complicated?” CBS News, August 2020,

  23. Baranauckas, Carla, and Samuel Stebbins. Coronavirus: How Minorities Are Disproportionately Affected, by State. July 2020,

  24. Barnes, Jenae. “A Black Participant in Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccination Trial: Trust the Vaccine.” ABC News, August 2020,

  25. Barron-Lopez, Laura, and Alice Miranda Ollstein. “Trump’s Fragmented Pandemic Response May Undermine Push to Address Racial Disparities.” POLITICO, July 2020,

  26. Barron-Lopez, Laura, et al. “‘People Can’t Ignore It Anymore’: Across the Country, Minorities Hit Hardest by Pandemic.” POLITICO, July 2020,

  27. Basu, Rekha. “Is COVID-19 Driving New Racism, or Are Old Divisions Being Exploited from the Top down?” Des Moines Register, May 2020,

  28. Baveja, Sahiba. “Penn Study Shows Disproportionately High COVID-19 Infection Rates in Black, Hispanic Women.” The Daily Pennsylvanian, August 2020,

  29. Begley, Sharon. “Who’s Dying of COVID-19 May Be Determined Just as Much by Race as by Age.” KQED, June 2020,

  30. Bellware, Kim. “Prisoners and Guards Agree about Federal Coronavirus Response: ‘We Do Not Feel Safe.’” Washington Post, August 2020,

  31. Benton, Ben. “Infectious Diseases Society Makes Recommendations for Prison, Jail COVID-19 Policies.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, May 2020,

  32. Berg, Sara. “5 Steps Physicians Can Take to Prioritize Black Patients’ Well-Being.” American Medical Association, July 2020,

  33. Bernard, Emily. “The Purpose of a House.” The New Yorker, June 2020,

  34. Berry, Deborah Barfield. “’This Report Is ... a Joke’: House Democrats Blast CDC over Racial Disparity Data amid Coronavirus.” USA Today, May 2020,

  35. Bethea, Charles. “What the Coronavirus Is Doing to Rural Georgia.” The New Yorker, April 2020,

  36. ---. “Georgia Betrays Its Voters Again.” The New Yorker, June 2020,

  37. Birrell, Sara. “‘It’s a Crisis of Legitimacy for the Capitalist System Itself.’” Briarpatch Magazine, April 2020,

  38. Blair, Nolan. “Upstate Series about COVID-19’s Impact on African American Community Continues.” WYFF, May 2020,

  39. Blow, Charles M. “Focus the Covid-19 Fight in Black Cities.” New York Times (Online), April 2020,

  40. Bouka, Aimée-Angélique, et al. “Canada’s COVID-19 Blind Spots on Race, Immigration and Labour.” Policy Options Politiques, May 2020,

  41. Bowden, John. “Coronavirus Patients in Areas with High Air Pollution More Likely to Die: Research.” The Hill, April 2020,

  42. Bowerman, Ashley. “Groups Push for More COVID-19 Testing in Underserved Communities.” Https://, July 2020,

  43. Brooks, Cornell William, and Marcella Alsan. “The Crisis of Mistrust and COVID-19: Race and Re-Imagining Tracing and Vaccination.” USA TODAY, September 2020,

  44. Buchanan, Larry, et al. “A Month of Coronavirus in New York City: See the Hardest-Hit Areas.” The New York Times, April 2020,

  45. Burling, Stacey. “Medical Workers, Nursing Homes Top List of Who Should Get COVID-19 Vaccine First, Says Academy of Medicine Advisory Group.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 2020,

  46. Burruto, Ivy. “Commentary: Parallels between HIV, COVID-19 Reflect Persisting Health and Social Inequalities.” University of Rochester School of Nursing, July 2020,

  47. CNN, Denise Royal and Phil Gast. “On This Pricey and Private Island near Miami Beach, Everyone Gets a Coronavirus Test.” CNN, April 2020,

  48. CNN, Rob Picheta. “Black People Four Times More Likely to Die from Covid-19 than White People, New UK Data Shows.” CNN, May 2020,

  49. Cahan, Eli. “Ethical or Exploitative—Should Prisoners Participate in COVID-19 Vaccine Trials?” Science \Textbar AAAS, September 2020,

  50. Carlson, Carole. “New Indiana Report Eyes COVID-19 Health Disparities among Minorities.”, July 2020,

  51. Carpenter, Zoe. “Will Covid-19 Be a Turning Point in the Fight Against Racial Disparities in Health Care?” The Nation, June 2020,

  52. Cerullo, Megan. “Moderna Vaccine Trial Lacks Black, Latinx and Indigenous Participants.” CBS News, August 2020,

  53. Cha, Ariana Eunjung. “‘We Don’t Get Justice’: When a Black Girl’s Death from Covid-19 Feels like a Collision of Two Crises.” Washington Post, June 2020,

  54. Chappell, Bill. “Protesting Racism Versus Risking COVID-19: ’I Wouldn’t Weigh These Crises Separately.’” NPR, June 2020,

  55. Chavez, Aliyah. “Two Pueblos Have Some of the Highest Infection Rates in US.”, April 2020,

  56. Chavis Jr., Benjamin. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” The Philadelphia Tribune, September 2020,

  57. Chavis, Dr. Benjamin F. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” Amsterdam News, September 2020,

  58. Chotiner, Isaac. “The Multiple Unfolding Crises for African-Americans in Minneapolis.” The New Yorker, May 2020,

  59. ---. “How Racism Is Shaping the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker, May 2020,

  60. ---. “Racism, Contagion, and the Dangers We Pose to One Another.” The New Yorker, September 2020,

  61. Christensen, Jen. “States Engaged in ’Gross Negligence’ in Covid-19 Response in Jails and Prisons, New Report Finds.” CNN, June 2020,

  62. Cobb, Jelani. “How the Coronavirus Pandemic Intensifies the Fight Over Voting Rights.” The New Yorker, April 2020,

  63. ---. “Minneapolis, the Coronavirus, and Trump’s Failure to See a Crisis Coming.” The New Yorker, May 2020,

  64. Cohen, Elizabeth. “Moderna Increases Minority Numbers in Its Vaccine Trial, but Still Not Meeting Fauci’s Goal.” CNN, August 2020,

  65. Cohen, Elizabeth, and Dana Vigue. “Covid-19 Vaccine Trials Have Been Slow to Recruit Black and Latino People – and That Could Delay a Vaccine.” CNN, August 2020,

  66. Coleman, Ken. “’Strike for Black Lives’: Nursing Home Workers Rally amid COVID-19 Crisis ⋆ Michigan Advance.” Michigan Advance, July 2020,

  67. Colvin, Eplunus. “Prison System Shows Signs of COVID-19 Recovery.” Times Record, June 2020,

  68. Conger, Kate, et al. “Native Americans Feel Devastated by the Virus Yet Overlooked in the Data.” The New York Times, July 2020,

  69. Cooney, Elizabeth. “Behind Covid-19’s Disparities: Immigration Status, Housing, and Work.” STAT, August 2020,

  70. Costa, Pedro Nicolaci da. “The Covid-19 Crisis Has Wiped Out Nearly Half Of Black Small Businesses.” Forbes, August 2020,

  71. Craven, Julia. “How Racial Health Disparities Will Play Out in the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Slate Magazine, March 2020,

  72. Davis, Kelly. “Coronavirus In Jails And Prisons.” The Appeal, August 2020,

  73. Dolan, Laura, and Jason Carroll. “Black Americans, Hit Hardest by the Pandemic, Feel They’Re Hurt by Both the Virus and Inequities Tied to Race.” CNN, September 2020,

  74. Donloe, Darlene. “Black Women’s Group Holds Prayer Rally for COVID-19.” Los Angeles Wave Newspapers, May 2020,

  75. Ducharme, Jamie. “Even in Wealthy Areas, People of Color Are More Likely to Get and Die from Coronavirus, Study Says.” Time, July 2020,

  76. Durkin, Erin. “NYC’s Poorest Neighborhoods Have Highest Death Rates from Coronavirus.” Politico, May 2020,

  77. Dwamena, Anakwa. “How Jair Bolsonaro and the Coronavirus Put Brazil’s Systemic Racism on Display.” The New Yorker, July 2020,

  78. D’Onofrio, Michael. “Black Docs: City Has Shortchanged the African-American Community.” The Philadelphia Tribune, May 2020,

  79. Eligon, John, et al. “Black Americans Face Alarming Rates of Coronavirus Infection in Some States.” The New York Times, April 2020,

  80. Enonchong, Rebecca, and Felix Marquardt. “Will Racism Color How We Remember COVID-19? \Textbar Opinion.” Newsweek, June 2020,

  81. Eschner, Kat. “COVID-19 Is Exposing the Food Deserts around Native American Reservations.” Popular Science, July 2020,

  82. Evich, Helena. Stark Racial Disparities Emerge as Families Struggle to Get Enough Food. July 2020,

  83. Fang, Marina. “Congressional Democrats Tell DOJ To Do More To Address COVID-19 Hate Crimes.” The Huffington Post, May 2020,

  84. ---. “Black And Asian Americans Have Experienced More Racism Due To COVID-19: New Survey.” The Huffington Post, July 2020,

  85. ---. “House Passes Legislation Condemning Wave Of Anti-Asian Racism.” The Huffington Post, September 2020,

  86. Fields, Robert. “COVID-19 Shines Light on How Healthcare Is Leaving At-Risk Populations Behind.” Medical Economics, September 2020,

  87. Firth, Shannon. “Racism Drives Inequities in COVID-19, House Panel Told.” MedPage Today, June 2020,

  88. Flynn, Meagan. “‘He Gave His Life for That Hospital’: A Doctor Put off Retirement to Fight Covid-19, Only to Die of the Virus.” Washington Post, May 2020,

  89. Ford, Steve. “BAME Staff Found to Be Scared to Speak out against Inequality.” Nursing Times, June 2020,

  90. Francis, Dania, and Christian E. Weller. “The Black-White Wealth Gap Will Widen Educational Disparities During the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Center for American Progress, August 2020,

  91. Frazin, Rachel. “Experts See Worrisome Link between Coronavirus, Pollution.” The Hill, April 2020,

  92. Fritz, Anita. “Senators, Public Health Officials Discuss Disparities, Inequities.” Greenfield Recorder, June 2020,

  93. Frosch, Dan. “Covid-19 Testing Is Hampered by Shortages of Critical Ingredient.” Wall Street Journal, September 2020,

  94. Fuller, Thomas. “Coronavirus Limits California’s Efforts to Fight Fires With Prison Labor.” The New York Times, August 2020,

  95. Furlow, Bryant. “Albuquerque Hospital’s Secret Policy Separated Native American Newborns From Their Mothers.” New Mexico In Depth, June 2020,

  96. Gadermann, Anne, et al. “Mental Health Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic Hits Marginalized Groups Hardest.” The Conversation, July 2020,

  97. Gallo, Kathryn. “Sen. Tina Smith Addresses Native American Communities Negatively Impacted by COVID-19.” KVRR Local News, June 2020,

  98. Galvin, Molly. “Historically Black Colleges and Universities Take Center Stage as the Nation Responds to COVID-19 and Systemic Racism \Textbar National Academies.” The National Academies Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, July 2020,

  99. Gardner, Amy, et al. “Trump Escalates Campaign to Discredit Mail Balloting, Threatening Federal Funds to Two Battleground States.” The Washington Post, May 2020,

  100. Gebeloff, David, et al. “The Striking Racial Divide in How Covid-19 Has Hit Nursing Homes.” The New York Times, May 2020,

  101. Godoy, Maria. “Black Medicare Patients With COVID-19 Nearly 4 Times As Likely To End Up In Hospital.”, June 2020,

  102. Godoy, Maria, and Daniel Wood. “What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?” NPR, May 2020,

  103. Goldbaum, Christina. “41 Transit Workers Dead: Crisis Takes Staggering Toll on Subways.” The New York Times, April 2020,

  104. Gonnerman, Jennifer. “A Transit Worker’s Survival Story. Driving a New York City Bus during a Pandemic and an Uprising.” The New Yorker, August 2020,

  105. ---. “The Purgatory of Parole Incarcerations During the Coronavirus Crisis.” The New Yorker, April 2020,

  106. Goodman, Amy. “Deaths of Inequality: AOC on Black and Latinx Communities at Epicenter of Epicenter of the Pandemic.” Democracy Now!, April 2020,

  107. Gopalakrishna, Pratibha. “Anthony Fauci on Lessons Learned so Far in the Covid-19 Pandemic.” STAT, September 2020,

  108. Graham, Megan. “World Health Organization Reports New Coronavirus Cases Reach All-Time High.” CNBC, July 2020,

  109. Gravlee, Clarence. “Racism, Not Genetics, Explains Why Black Americans Are Dying Of COVID-19.” Scientific American, June 2020,

  110. Gray, Madison J. “NYC Black And Latino Communities Showing Higher Death Rates Than Affluent Neighborhoods.” BET, May 2020,

  111. Green, Jeff, and Jackie Gu. “The Covid Death Rate in Majority-Black Counties Is Getting Worse.”, July 2020,

  112. Greenhouse, Steven. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Intensified Systemic Economic Racism Against Black Americans.” The New Yorker, July 2020,

  113. Greig, Jonathan. “Kamala Harris And Cory Booker Call On FBI To Address Fear Over Cops’ Response To Black People Wearing Face Masks.” Blavity News, April 2020,

  114. Grey, Heather. “More Evidence That Black Americans Face High Risks from COVID-19.” Healthline, August 2020,

  115. Guida, Victoria. “Fed Study: Covid-19 Overwhelmingly Strikes Counties with Most Black Businesses.” POLITICO, August 2020,

  116. Guo, Eileen. “As Covid-19 Cases in Prisons Climb, Data on Race Remain Largely Obscured.” STAT, August 2020,

  117. Harrison, David. “Public Transit Use Is Associated With Higher Coronavirus Death Rates, Researchers Find.” The Wall Street Journal, June 2020,

  118. Harrison, Dr. Dave. “As Progress Continues on Coronavirus Vaccine, Experts Debate Who Should Be 1st to Receive It.” ABC News, September 2020,

  119. Hart, Ariel. “COVID-19 Swamps Another Rural Georgia County.” Atlanta Journal Constitution, May 2020,

  120. Hart, Marion. “UNICEF USA BrandVoice: Why COVID-19 Is Hitting Black And Hispanic Children Especially Hard.” Forbes, August 2020,

  121. Hawkins, B. Denise. “New Data Tracking System Highlights Race Disparities Among COVID-19-Related Deaths.” Diverse Education, July 2020,

  122. Hawkins, Beth. New Research Predicts Steep COVID Learning Losses Will Widen Already Dramatic Achievement Gaps Within Classrooms. June 2020,

  123. Healy, Jack, and Dionne Searcey. “Two Crises Convulse a Nation: A Pandemic and Police Violence.” The New York Times, May 2020,

  124. Hilgers, Lauren. “How Texas Republicans Politicized the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker, July 2020,

  125. Hollis, Adrienne. “Researchers Find Deadliest Aspect of COVID-19 for People of Color: Racism.” Union of Concerned Scientists, July 2020,

  126. Holpuch, Amanda. “Corona in Corona: Deadly Toll in a New York Neighborhood Tells a Story of Race, Poverty and Inequality.” The Guardian, June 2020,

  127. Holt, Lester, and Rehema Ellis. “Oprah Winfrey Warns Black Community of COVID-19 Impact.” NBC Nightly News, April 2020,

  128. Howard, Jacqueline. “Racism Contributes to Covid-19’s Impact on the Black Community, Fauci Says.” CNN, June 2020,

  129. Howard, Jacqueline, and Kristen Rogers. “US Racial Inequality May Be Just as Deadly as Covid-19.” CNN Health, August 2020,

  130. Hughes, Trevor. “Segregated Parks Linked to Higher COVID-19 Deaths for Black and Latino Americans.” USA TODAY, August 2020,

  131. Hymes, Clare. “Federal Prisons Reach Grim Milestone: 100 Inmate Deaths from Coronavirus.” CBS News, July 2020,

  132. Jackson, Angie. “COVID-19 Adds More Challenges to Reentry after Prison: ’It’s Really a Whole New Game.’” Detroit Free Press, September 2020,

  133. Johnson, Kaley. “Women Say They Face COVID, Lack of Food, Abuse at ‘House of Horror’ Fort Worth Prison.” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 2020,

  134. Johnson-Hargrove, Desha. “Coronavirus Killed My Husband. Stay Home to Save Others.” Time, April 2020,

  135. Jones, Esyllt. “Epidemics and Resistance: Maintaining Public Trust in a Time of Unrest.” The Hill Times, June 2020,

  136. Jones, Van. No One Was Sentenced to Die by a Virus: A SAFER Plan for COVID-19 in US Jails & Prisons. 2020,

  137. Jordan, Miriam, and Richard A. Oppel Jr. “For Latinos and Covid-19, Doctors Are Seeing an ‘Alarming’ Disparity.” The New York Times, May 2020,

  138. KWCH. “Kansas Sees Nation’s Largest Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Deaths.” KWCH News, May 2020,

  139. Kaplan, Elise, and Theresa Davis. “’Huge Disparity’ in COVID-19 Death Rates for Native Americans in NM.” Albuquerque Journal, May 2020,

  140. Kaplan, Karen. “CDC Data Reveal Another Racial Disparity for COVID-19 Victims — Age at Death.” Los Angeles Times, July 2020,

  141. Karaca-Mandic, Pinar, and Soumya Sen. “COVID-19 Hospitalizations Analysis Shows Disparities across Racial and Ethnic Groups.” ScienceDaily, August 2020,

  142. Kaur, Harmeet. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Hitting Black and Brown Americans Especially Hard on All Fronts.” CNN, May 2020,

  143. Kavi, Aishvarya. “Journalist Bob Woodward Releases New Book, Rage, Detailing the Moments President Donald Trump Received News about COVID-19 in January, and His Consequent Downplaying of the Virus to the American Public from February Onward.” The New York Times, September 2020,

  144. Kelley, Alexandra. “More than 1,000 CDC Employees Sign Letter Decrying ’Toxic Culture’ of Racism in Agency.” TheHill, July 2020,

  145. Kendi, Ibram X. “Stop Blaming Black People for Dying of the Coronavirus.” The Atlantic, April 2020,

  146. Kiersz, Andy, and Aylin Woodward. “An Alarmingly Disproportionate Number of Black Americans Are Dying from the Coronavirus, More and More Research Shows.” Business Insider, May 2020,

  147. Kimmell, Ken. “Perpetrators of Vile, Racist Acts Must Be Brought to Justice.” Union of Concerned Scientists, May 2020,

  148. King, Noel. “Why COVID-19 Disproportionately Impacts Latino Communities.” NPR, July 2020,

  149. Klasing, Amanda. “US Structural Racism Shapes Access to Water During Covid-19.” Human Rights Watch, July 2020,

  150. Konetzka, R. Tamara. “Nursing Homes Serving Black and Latino Residents Need More Support \Textbar Expert Opinion.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 2020,

  151. Krishnamurthy, Madhu. “Dramatic Rise in Suicides among Cook County’s Black Population.” Daily Herald, August 2020,

  152. Lakhani, Nina, and Jonathan Watts. “Environmental Justice Means Racial Justice, Say Activists.” The Guardian, June 2020,

  153. Laughland, Oliver. ‘“It”s Bad When You Have to Drag Yourself to the Hospital”: US South Struggles against Covid-19’. The Guardian, August 2020,

  154. Lavietes, Matthew, et al. “’A Pandemic in a Pandemic’: Coronavirus Deepens Racial Gaps in America.” Reuters, August 2020,

  155. Lavoie, Denise, et al. “US Prison Populations down 8% amid Coronavirus Outbreak.” The Seattle Times, July 2020,

  156. Layne, Nathan, and Gabriella Borter. “Seven U.S. States Post Record COVID Cases, Curfew Ordered in Miami.” US News & World Report, July 2020,

  157. Leber, Rebecca. “The Connections Between Race, Pollution, and Covid-19.” Undark Magazine, June 2020,

  158. Lee, Ethan. Harvard Researchers Create First County-Level Nationwide COVID-19 Policy Dataset \Textbar News \Textbar The Harvard Crimson. July 2020,

  159. Leibenluft, Jacob, and Ben Olinsky. “Protecting Worker Safety and Economic Security During the COVID-19 Reopening.” Center for American Progress, June 2020,

  160. Leonard, Kimberley. “Surgeon General: Racism to Blame for Coronavirus Toll on People of Color.” Business Insider, June 2020,

  161. Leonard, Kimberly. “The Coronavirus Is Devastating Communities of Color. The Trump Administration’s Top Doctor Blames ’Structural Racism’ and Shares His Plans to Take Action.” Business Insider, June 2020,

  162. Lerner, Louise. “Study: Nearly 16% of Illinois COVID-19 Cases Linked to Spread from Chicago Jail.” University of Chicago News, June 2020,

  163. Lin II, Rong-Gong, et al. “California Latino, Black Residents Hit Even Harder by Coronavirus as White People See Less Danger.” Los Angeles Times, June 2020,

  164. Lindstrom, Rebecca. “Breaking down Georgia’s COVID-19 Death Statistics.” 11Alive, May 2020,

  165. Lopez, Oscar. “Economic Impact of Coronavirus Zeroes in on Black LGBT+ Americans.” Reuters, August 2020,

  166. López, Canela. “Oprah Winfrey Says the Coronavirus Is ’Ravaging’ the Black Community.” Insider, April 2020,

  167. Malone, Clare. “New York’s Inequalities Are Fueling COVID-19.” FiveThirtyEight, April 2020,

  168. Mangat, Palak. “Feds Should Use Anti-Racism Strategy to Tackle Anti-Asian Sentiments in Wake of Pandemic, Say Experts.” The Hill Times, May 2020,

  169. Mark, Michelle. “More US Prisoners Have Died of COVID-19 in Recent Months than Have Been Executed in the Last 20 Years.” Insider, August 2020,

  170. Martin, Michael. “The Coronavirus’ Outsized Impact On California’s Latino Communities.”, July 2020,

  171. Masoud, Zahra. “Health Inequity in the Hispanic/Latinx Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Infectious Disease Advisor, September 2020,

  172. May 4, Sarah LaFave / Published. “How School Closures for COVID-19 Amplify Inequality.” The Hub, May 2020,

  173. Mays, Jeffery C., and Andy Newman. “Virus Is Twice as Deadly for Black and Latino People Than Whites in N.Y.C.” The New York Times, April 2020,

  174. McCullom, Rod. “Artificial Intelligence, Health Disparities, and Covid-19.” Undark Magazine, July 2020,

  175. McFarling, Usha Lee. Dermatology Faces a Reckoning: Lack of Darker Skin in Textbooks and Journals Harms Care for Patients of Color. July 2020,

  176. McMinn, Sean, et al. “In Large Texas Cities, Access To Coronavirus Testing May Depend On Where You Live.” NPR, May 2020,

  177. McVane, Ben. “Opinion \Textbar I’m a Doctor at the ‘Epicenter of the Epicenter.’” The New York Times, May 2020,

  178. Michaels, Samantha, and Samantha Michaels. “Breonna Taylor Is One of a Shocking Number of Black People to See Armed Police Barge Into Their Homes.” Mother Jones, May 2020,

  179. Miller, Leanne, and Meg Tirrell. “Moderna Slows Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Enrollment to Ensure Minority Representation, CEO Says.” CNBC, September 2020,

  180. Mineo, Liz. “Documenting the Lives of Black Americans in the Age of COVID.” Harvard Gazette, September 2020,

  181. Montgomery, Louise. “Covid-19 and Environmental Racism.” The Ecologist, May 2020,

  182. Morrison, Aaron. “Democratic Lawmakers Call for Racial Data in Virus Testing.” Assoicated Press, March 2020,

  183. Mullings, Morgan. “Social Factors Contribute to COVID-19 Cases among Blacks and Latinos.” The Bay State Banner, September 2020,

  184. Murphy, Timothy. United We Stand: Building a Better Future for All. 2020,

  185. NAACP. “New Poll Reveals COVID-19’s Impacts on African American Communities.” NAACP, May 2020,

  186. Neel, Joe. “NPR Poll: Financial Pain From Coronavirus Pandemic ’Much, Much Worse’ Than Expected.”, September 2020,

  187. Neff, Joseph, and Dan Kane. “Freed From Prison, Dead from COVID-19, Not Even Counted.” The Marshall Project, July 2020,

  188. Neuman, Scott. “COVID-19 Death Rate For Black Americans Twice That For Whites, New Report Says.”, August 2020,

  189. Neumann, Sean. “Senators Introduce ’Much Needed’ Bill to Address Coronavirus’ Racial Disparities.”, July 2020,

  190. News, C. BS. The Racial Impact of COVID-19. CBSN, April 2020,

  191. Newton, Creede. “COVID-19 Prison Problem as Cases Soar at California’s San Quentin.” Aljazeera, June 2020,

  192. Nilsen, Ella. “Exclusive: Senate Democrats Press AG Barr for Answers about Poll Closures on Native American Reservations.” Vox, July 2020,

  193. O’Reilly, Kevin. “FDA’s SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Review Needs Major Dose of Transparency.” American Medical Association, August 2020,

  194. ---. “7 Ways Congress Can Cut COVID-19’s Health Inequities.” American Medical Association, July 2020,

  195. Ochsner, Nick. “Prisoners Continued Being Sent to Laundry Job after Co-Workers Tested Positive for COVID-19.” Https://, August 2020,

  196. Office, H. HS Press. “HHS Announces New Laboratory Data Reporting Guidance for COVID-19 Testing.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, June 2020,

  197. Office, New York City Mayor’s. “Mayor De Blasio Announces Expansion of Community Partnership to Encourage Social Distancing as Part of New Taskforce on Racial Inclusion and Equity Recommendations.” The Official Website of the City of New York, May 2020,

  198. Ojikutu, Bisola O., et al. “Opinion \Textbar A Covid-19 Vaccine Can Ensure Better Outcomes for Communities of Color. Let’s Work to Earn Their Trust.” Washington Post, July 2020,

  199. Oliveira, Alexandra. “Black People Are Dying from Coronavirus — Air Pollution Is One of the Main Culprits.” TheHill, May 2020,

  200. Oppel Jr., Richard A., et al. “The Fullest Look Yet at the Racial Inequity of Coronavirus.” The New York Times, July 2020,

  201. Ortiz, Erik. “Native Americans Are Undercounted in the Census. In 2020, It Could Be ‘Devastating.".” NBC News, July 2020,

  202. Ortiz, Jorge L. “Coronavirus Pandemic Tearing through Latino Communities – and It May Get Worse.” USA TODAY, July 2020,

  203. Overberg, Paul, and Jon Kamp. “WSJ News Exclusive \Textbar Covid-19 Deaths Skew Younger Among Minorities.” Wall Street Journal, August 2020,

  204. Owens, Adam. “Physicians Offer Free COVID-19 Testing for Minority Communities, Hardest Hit by Virus.”, September 2020,

  205. Pandika, Melissa. “Pregnant Latinx Women Are Contracting COVID-19 at an Alarming Rate.” Mic, August 2020,

  206. Papenfuss, Mary. “Surgeon General Singles Out People Of Color To Stop Alcohol, Drugs In COVID-19 Fight.” HuffPost, April 2020,

  207. Parker, Adam. “Black People Bear the Brunt of Coronavirus but Hesitate to Get Medical Help.” Post and Courier, August 2020,

  208. Peek, Monica. “Commentary: Food Insecurity Adds to COVID-19 Vulnerability for Too Many.” Chicago Tribune (Online), April 2020,

  209. Perez, Matt. “Hispanic, Black And American Indian Children Die From The Coronavirus At Disproportionate Rates, CDC Finds.” Forbes, September 2020,

  210. Perrett, Connor. “Black People Account for 72% of COVID-19 Deaths in Chicago While Making up Less than a Third of City’s Population, Mayor Says.” Business Insider, US edition, April 2020,

  211. Pilkington, Ed. “Covid-19 Death Rate among African Americans and Latinos Rising Sharply.” The Guardian, September 2020,

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Audiovisual Materials

  1. NPR Poll: Black, Latino Households Struggle To Pay Rent, Mortgages : NPR.

  2. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. Under the Blacklight: The Intersectional Vulnerabilities That COVID Lays Bare.

  3. Demby, Gene. The United States’ Pre-Existing Conditions: Ed Yong Talks About COVID-19 And Structural Inequality (25 August 2020).

  4. Nast, Condé. “Arkansas Prisoners Organize Against Unchecked Racism and the Coronavirus.” The New Yorker, June 2020,

  5. Alliance for Health Policy. Health Inequities: Addressing the Disease Burden in Black, Indigenous, & People of Color Communities. June 2020,

  6. American Association for Cancer Research. Health Inequities and Disparities in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Impact on Cancer Care. June 2020,

  7. American Bar Association Section of Civil Rights and Social Justice. Issues Affecting Native American Communities During the COVID-19 Crisis. April 2020,

  8. American Medical Association. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 & Native Voices in the Field. May 2020,

  9. ---. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 & the Experiences of Medical Students. May 2020,

  10. ---. COVID-19 Update: Effects on Native American Population. April 2020,

  11. ---. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 and Latinx Voices in the Field. May 2020,

  12. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Moving Upstream. July 2020,

  13. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause & Considerations for Health Care Professionals. June 2020,

  14. ---. COVID-19 Update: Effects on Racially Marginalized Groups. April 2020,

  15. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause. May 2020,

  16. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Police Brutality and COVID-19. June 2020,

  17. American Psychological Association. Why Is COVID 19 Disproportionately Affecting Black and Latino Americans with Brian Smedley, PhD. April 2020,

  18. American Public Health Association. COVID-19 and Health Equity — Exploring Disparities and Long-Term Health Impacts. April 2020,

  19. Annals on Call. COVID-19 Disparities.

  20. BMJ’s Coronavirus (COVID-19) Playlist. Where Race, Disparity, and Pandemic Collide: COVID-19 USA.

  21. Beyond the White Coat. Racial Health Disparities: How COVID-19 Magnified a Public Health Emergency.

  22. BioConnect. Health Disparities Among COVID-19.

  23. Bloomberg. Income Inequality Gap Widens Amid COVID-19. September 2020,

  24. Brookings Institute. The Impact of COVID-19 on Prisons. May 2020,

  25. CA Public Health. Infectious Joy - A California Department of Public Health COVID-19 PSA Targeting Young Latinx and Black People. August 2020,

  26. ---. Let’s Get Close - A California Department of Public Health COVID-19 PSA Targeting Young Latinx and Black People.

  27. CBS News. How COVID-19 and Racial Injustice Impact the Mental Health in Black Communities. August 2020,

  28. CBS News, et al. Longstanding Issues Put Native American Communities at High COVID-19 Risk. April 2020,

  29. CDC. CDC COVID-19 Response Promising Practices in Health Equity II. July 2020,

  30. CNBC. What COVID-19 Health Disparities Mean to Six Black Medical Professionals. May 2020,

  31. COVID-19 Daily Update: Minnesota Native News. COVID-19 Cases Among Native Americans in Minnesota Likely Underreported.

  32. Columbia University African American and African Diaspora Studies Department. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Malo Hutson on the Built Environment".

  33. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Keesha Middlemass on Incarceration and Re-Entry".

  34. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Dr. Oni Blackstock on NYC’s Health Response".

  35. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Tramell Thompson on the Frontlines of NYC Subways".

  36. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Matt Swain on Being an Essential Healthcare Worker During the Crisis".

  37. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Saeeda Dunston on Providing Community Services During a Pandemic".

  38. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Jelani Cobb on the Pandemic, History, and Our ‘American Spring’".

  39. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Steven Thrasher on the Criminalization of Disease and Poverty".

  40. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Alondra Nelson on Science, Technology, and Social Inequality".

  41. DemocracyNow. COVID Racial Data Tracker: Ibram X. Kendi on How Better Data Reveals the True Toll of the Pandemic. May 2020,

  42. ---. “A Systematic Issue of Disparity”: Black People in Louisiana Account for 70% of COVID-19 Deaths. April 2020,

  43. Duke University. COVID-19 Media Briefing: The Pandemic’s Impact on Black Communities. July 2020,

  44. Faces of Diparity. COVID-19: Addressing Systemic Racism in the Midst of Pandemic - Infectious Diseases Society of America \Textbar Podcast on Spotify.

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  2. Adams, Vincanne. “Disasters and Capitalism…and COVID-19.” Somatosphere, March 2020,

  3. Bermant, Laia Soto, and Nikolai Ssorin-Chaikov. “Social Anthropology: Vol 28, No 2.” Social Anthropology, May 2020,

  4. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. “Color-Blind Racism in Pandemic Times.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, July 2020, p. 2332649220941024, doi:10.1177/2332649220941024.

  5. Chang, Jason Oliver. “Yellow Peril Teach-In Resources.” Google Docs, August 2020,

  6. Connell, Raewyn. “COVID-19/Sociology - Raewyn Connell, 2020.” Journal of Sociology, July 2020,

  7. Curley, Andrew. “Contested Water Settlements Inflamed the Navajo Nation’s Health Crisis.” High Country News, August 2020,

  8. D’Ignazio, Catherine, and Lauren Klein. “Seven Intersectional Feminist Principles for Equitable and Actionable COVID-19 Data - Catherine D’Ignazio, Lauren F. Klein, 2020.” Big Data & Society, July 2020,

  9. Glass, Eric. “Research Guides: Health Data Resources.” Columbia University Libraries,

  10. Hebert, Pato, and Alexandra Juhasz. “You’Re Still Sick.” BOMB Magazine, July 2020,

  11. Laterza, Vito, and Louis Philippe Romer. “COVID-19, the Freedom to Die, and the Necropolitics of the Market.” Somatosphere, May 2020,

  12. Lianke, Yan. “Yan Lianke: What Happens After Coronavirus?” Literary Hub, March 2020,

  13. Lima, Lazaro. “Essential Work, Disposable Lives: Latino Invisibility, Black Lives, and Coalition Politics in the Age of Covid-19.” Roosevelt House Public Policy Institute at Hunter College, July 2020,

  14. Manley, Gabriela. “Introducing the Pandemic Diaries.” American Ethnological Society, March 2020,

  15. Merrick, John. “Mike Davis Tried to Warn Us About a Virus-Induced Apocalypse.” Jacobin Magazine, July 2020,

  16. Preciado, Paul B. “Learning from the Virus.” Art Forum, June 2020,

  17. Roberts, Samuel K. “Podcast Series 2020: ‘Black Lives: In the Era of COVID 19.’” Columbia University African American and African DIaspora Studies Department, June 2020,

  18. Roberts, Samuel Kelton. “Bearing Witness: The Covid-19 and Inequality History Documentation Project.” Bearing Witness,

  19. Rodriguez, Robert M. “Tackling Another COVID-19 Pandemic Disparity - Distance from Major Academic Medical Centers Encumbers Emergency and Critical Care Physician Surge Capacity.” Academic Emergency Medicine, September 2020, doi:10.1111/acem.14123.

  20. Sanderson, Matthew R. “Here We Are: Agriculture and Human Values in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.” Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 37, no. 3, September 2020, pp. 515–16, doi:10.1007/s10460-020-10040-w.

  21. Wald, Priscilla. Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative. Duke University Press, 2008, doi:10.1215/9780822390572.

  22. Brown University IT Service Center. Using Zoom for Remote Teaching. September 2020,

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  24. The Marxist Feminist Collective. “On Social Reproduction and the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Spectre Journal, April 2020,