Bearing Witness
The Covid-19 & Inequality History Documentation Project


  1. “Early Coronavirus Drug Trials Tested Vaccines Mostly on White People; next Phase Aims for Diversity.” CNBC,, July 2020.

  2. Adhikari, Samrachana, and Olugbenga Ogedegbe. “Racial Disparities in COVID-19–Related Deaths Exist Beyond Income Differences in Large U.S. Cities.” NYU Langone News,, July 2020.

  3. Aguilera, Jasmine. “Migrants Stranded in Mexico Have 1 Year to File for Asylum. COVID-19 Is Making That Deadline Nearly Impossible.”,, September 2020.

  4. Akhtar, Allana. Filipinos Make up 4% of Nurses in the US, but 31.5% of Nurse Deaths from COVID-19., September 2020.

  5. Albert, Victoria. “People of Color Are Exempt from Oregon County’s Mandatory Mask Order.” CBS News,, June 2020.

  6. Aleem, Zeeshan. “New CDC Data Shows Covid-19 Is Affecting African Americans at Exceptionally High Rates.” Vox,, April 2020.

  7. Alexander, Elizabeth. “The Trayvon Generation.” The New Yorker,, June 2020.

  8. Alexander, Michelle. “Let Our People Go.” The New York Times, May 2020.

  9. Allday, Erin. “Choosing between Tragedies: Mass Protests vs. Coronavirus Safety.”,, June 2020.

  10. Alleyne, Kenneth R. “How Covid-19 Is a Perfect Storm for Black Americans.” The Washington Post, WP Company LLC d/b/a The Washington Post, April 2020.

  11. Almendrala, Anna. “COVID Crackdowns at Work Have Saved Black and Latino Lives, LA Officials Say.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  12. Anderson, Diane. “Black Health Advocates Watch For Covid-19 Funding.” Precinct Reporter Group News, May 2020.

  13. Anderson, Elijah, et al. “Yale Experts on the Parallel Crises of COVID-19 and Systemic Racism.” Office of the President,, July 2020.

  14. Arthur, Corey Devon. “During the COVID-19 Crisis, Don’t Shoot the Messenger.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  15. Aspholm, Roberto. “To Talk About Racial Disparity and COVID-19, We Need to Talk About Class.” Jacobin Magazine,, August 2020.

  16. Aspinwall, Cary, et al. “Federal Prison Factories Kept Running as Coronavirus Spread.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  17. ---. “What Women Dying In Prison From COVID-19 Tell Us About Female Incarceration.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  18. ---. “Coronavirus Transforming Jails Across the Country.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  19. Aubrey, Allison. “Who’s Hit Hardest By COVID-19? Why Obesity, Stress And Race All Matter.” NPR,, April 2020.

  20. ---. “Will Kids Get A COVID-19 Vaccine? Pfizer To Expand Trial To Ages 12 And Up.”,, October 2020.

  21. ---. “The Latest Developments On COVID-19 Treatments And Vaccines.”,, October 2020.

  22. Avril, Tom. “Did Philadelphia Demonstrations after the Death of George Floyd in Minneapolis Spread the Coronavirus?” The Philadelphia Inquirer, May 2020.

  23. Awake, Mik. “The Comorbidities of the National Football League.” The New Yorker,, July 2020.

  24. Azar, Kristen M. J., et al. “Disparities In Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients In A Large Health Care System In California.” Health Affairs, Health Affairs, May 2020, p. 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598.

  25. Bahadur, Nina. “Is COVID-19 Making Black Birth More Complicated?” CBS News,, August 2020.

  26. Baker, Peter, and Maggie Haberman. “Trump Tests Positive for the Coronavirus.” The New York Times, October 2020.

  27. Baranauckas, Carla, and Samuel Stebbins. Coronavirus: How Minorities Are Disproportionately Affected, by State., July 2020.

  28. Barclay, Eliza. “How to More Safely Protest in a Pandemic.” Vox,, May 2020.

  29. Barnes, Jenae. “A Black Participant in Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccination Trial: Trust the Vaccine.” ABC News,, August 2020.

  30. Bartley, Lawrence. “How 27 Years Behind Bars Prepared Me for Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  31. Basu, Rekha. “Is COVID-19 Driving New Racism, or Are Old Divisions Being Exploited from the Top Down?” Des Moines Register, May 2020.

  32. Bauer, Kelly. “Chicago Protests Could Be ‘Super-Spreading’ Coronavirus Events — Even With Masks, Lightfoot Says.” Block Club Chicago,, June 2020.

  33. Baveja, Sahiba. “Penn Study Shows Disproportionately High COVID-19 Infection Rates in Black, Hispanic Women.” The Daily Pennsylvanian,, August 2020.

  34. Beachum, Lateshia. “This Nurse Cared for the Lives of Black Mothers and Their Babies. Covid-19 Took Hers.” Washington Post, May 2020.

  35. Begley, Sharon. “Who’s Dying of COVID-19 May Be Determined Just as Much by Race as by Age.” KQED,, June 2020.

  36. Bellware, Kim. “Prisoners and Guards Agree about Federal Coronavirus Response: ‘We Do Not Feel Safe.’” Washington Post, August 2020.

  37. Bentley, Lawrence, and Brie Willaims. “COVID-19 In Prison: A Survival Guide.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  38. Benton, Ben. “Infectious Diseases Society Makes Recommendations for Prison, Jail COVID-19 Policies.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, May 2020.

  39. Berg, Sara. “5 Steps Physicians Can Take to Prioritize Black Patients’ Well-Being.” American Medical Association,, July 2020.

  40. Bernard, Emily. “The Purpose of a House.” The New Yorker,, June 2020.

  41. Berry, Deborah Barfield. “’This Report Is ... a Joke’: House Democrats Blast CDC over Racial Disparity Data amid Coronavirus.” USA Today, May 2020.

  42. Bethea, Charles. “Georgia Betrays Its Voters Again.” The New Yorker,, June 2020.

  43. ---. “What the Coronavirus Is Doing to Rural Georgia.” The New Yorker, April 2020.

  44. Birrell, Sara. “‘It’s a Crisis of Legitimacy for the Capitalist System Itself.’” Briarpatch Magazine, Briarpatch Inc., April 2020.

  45. Blackwell, Christopher. “In Prison, Even Social Distancing Rules Get Weaponized.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  46. Blair, Nolan. “Upstate Series about COVID-19’s Impact on African American Community Continues.” WYFF,, May 2020.

  47. Blakinger, Eli. “Ewwwww, What Is That?” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  48. Blakinger, Keri. “Coronavirus Restrictions Stoke Tensions in Lock-Ups Across U.S.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  49. ---. “‘I Have a Bad Feeling About This.’” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  50. ---. “How Long Can You Hide a Dead Body in a Prison Cell?” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  51. ---. “Texas Prison Officers: We Asked For Face Masks In 2017. COVID-19 Got Here First.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  52. ---. “What Happens When More Than 300,000 Prisoners Are Locked Down?” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  53. Blakinger, Keri, and Keegan Hamilton. “‘I Begged Them To Let Me Die’: How Federal Prisons Became Coronavirus Death Traps.” The Marshall Project,, June 2020.

  54. Blakinger, Keri, and Joseph Neff. “Prisons Are Standing in the Way of Prisoners’ Stimulus Checks.” The Marshall Project,, October 2020.

  55. Blakinger, Keri, and Beth Schwartzapfel. “Coronavirus and Prisons: A Toxic Combination.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  56. Blow, Charles M. “Focus the Covid-19 Fight in Black Cities.” New York Times (Online), New York Times Company, April 2020.

  57. Board, The Editorial. “As George Floyd Protests Heat up Coronavirus Crisis, 4 in Atlanta Speak up and Lead.” USA TODAY,, June 2020.

  58. Boots, Michelle Theriault. “COVID-19 Outbreak Expands in Overcrowded Fairbanks Jail.” Anchorage Daily News,, October 2020.

  59. Bosman, Julie, and Amy Harmon. “Protests Draw Shoulder-to-Shoulder Crowds After Months of Virus Isolation.” The New York Times, July 2020.

  60. Boston, 677 Huntington Avenue, and Ma 02115 +1495-1000. “COVID-19 May Lead to More Maternal Deaths among Blacks, Latinos.” News,, May 2020.

  61. Bouka, Aimée-Angélique, et al. “Canada’s COVID-19 Blind Spots on Race, Immigration and Labour.” Policy Options Politiques, May 2020.

  62. Bowden, John. “Coronavirus Patients in Areas with High Air Pollution More Likely to Die: Research.” The Hill,, April 2020.

  63. Bowerman, Ashley. “Groups Push for More COVID-19 Testing in Underserved Communities.” Https://,, July 2020.

  64. Bozzi, Sloane. “COVID-19 Update: Mortality Rate Decreasing among Latino and Black Communities.” The Daily Sundial, October 2020.

  65. Branswell, Helen, and Ed Silverman. “Stat News Reports on 7 Looming Questions about the Rollout of a Covid-19 Vaccine.” STAT, October 2020.

  66. Brooks, Cornell William, and Marcella Alsan. “The Crisis of Mistrust and COVID-19: Race and Re-Imagining Tracing and Vaccination.” USA TODAY,, September 2020.

  67. Buchanan, Larry, et al. “A Month of Coronavirus in New York City: See the Hardest-Hit Areas.” The New York Times, April 2020.

  68. Budiman, Abby, et al. “Financial and Health Impacts of COVID-19 Vary Widely by Race and Ethnicity.” Pew Research Center, May 2020.

  69. Buhl, Larry, and 2020 May 14. “Will COVID-19 Make Modernizing HIV Criminal Laws Harder?” TheBody,, May 2020.

  70. Burling, Stacey. “Medical Workers, Nursing Homes Top List of Who Should Get COVID-19 Vaccine First, Says Academy of Medicine Advisory Group.” The Philadelphia Inquirer,, September 2020.

  71. Burruto, Ivy. “Commentary: Parallels between HIV, COVID-19 Reflect Persisting Health and Social Inequalities.” University of Rochester School of Nursing,, July 2020.

  72. CADET, D. AN IE LL E. Coronavirus Makes Being Black And Pregnant Scarier., April 2020.

  73. ---. Being Black & Pregnant Was Already Scary — Coronavirus Makes It Even Scarier., April 2020.

  74. CNN, Denise Royal and Phil Gast. “On This Pricey and Private Island near Miami Beach, Everyone Gets a Coronavirus Test.” CNN,, April 2020.

  75. CNN, Rob Picheta. “Black People Four Times More Likely to Die from Covid-19 than White People, New UK Data Shows.” CNN,, May 2020.

  76. Cahan, Eli. “Ethical or Exploitative—Should Prisoners Participate in COVID-19 Vaccine Trials?” Science | AAAS,, September 2020.

  77. ---. “Most Home Health Aides ‘Can’t Afford Not to Work’ — Even When Lacking PPE.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  78. Cahn, Naomi. “COVID-19’s Impact On Women Of Color.” Forbes,, May 2020.

  79. Cain, Jacqueline. “Boston’s Black-Owned Restaurant Owners Launch a ‘Survival’ Coalition.” Boston Magazine,, May 2020.

  80. Campbell, Mary Schmidt. “Spelman College Faces a Redefined Reality.” The New York Times, April 2020.

  81. Carlson, Carole. “New Indiana Report Eyes COVID-19 Health Disparities among Minorities.”,, July 2020.

  82. Caroselli, Dino. “‘Covid Breached the Wall and Killed A Man Yesterday.’” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  83. Carpenter, Zoe. “Will Covid-19 Be a Turning Point in the Fight Against Racial Disparities in Health Care?” The Nation, June 2020.

  84. Castro, Marcia, and Ma 02115 +1495-1000. “Lack of Federal Leadership Hinders Brazil’s COVID-19 Response.” Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health,, June 2020.

  85. Cerullo, Megan. “Moderna Vaccine Trial Lacks Black, Latinx and Indigenous Participants.” CBS News,, August 2020.

  86. Cha, Ariana Eunjung. “‘We Don’t Get Justice’: When a Black Girl’s Death from Covid-19 Feels like a Collision of Two Crises.” Washington Post, June 2020.

  87. Chalfant, Morgan, and Jonathan Easley. Biden/Harris Campaign Cancels Harris Travel after Aide Tests Positive for COVID-19., October 2020.

  88. Chammah, Maurice. “Their Unlikely Alliance Began at Whataburger. Can They Reform a Texas Jail?” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  89. ---. “‘We All Have An Expiration Date’: The Death of a Prison Writer.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  90. ---. “The Rise of the Anti-Lockdown Sheriffs.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  91. ---. “Coronavirus Ended His Shot at a Second Chance.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  92. Chammah, Maurice, and Tom Meagher. “Is COVID-19 Falling Harder on Black Prisoners? Officials Won’t Tell Us.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  93. Chappell, Bill. “Protesting Racism Versus Risking COVID-19: ’I Wouldn’t Weigh These Crises Separately.’” NPR,, June 2020.

  94. ---. “’Enormous And Tragic’: U.S. Has Lost More Than 200,000 People To COVID-19.”,, September 2020.

  95. Chase, Brett. Hundreds or Thousands Could Come down with COVID-19 after Chicago Protests, Expert Says - Chicago Sun-Times., June 2020.

  96. Chavez, Aliyah. “Two Pueblos Have Some of the Highest Infection Rates in US.”,, April 2020.

  97. Chavis Jr., Benjamin. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” The Philadelphia Tribune,, September 2020.

  98. Chavis, Dr. Benjamin F. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” Amsterdam News,, September 2020.

  99. Chotiner, Isaac. “The Multiple Unfolding Crises for African-Americans in Minneapolis.” The New Yorker,, May 2020.

  100. ---. “How Racism Is Shaping the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker, May 2020.

  101. ---. “Racism, Contagion, and the Dangers We Pose to One Another.” The New Yorker,, September 2020.

  102. Chotiner, Isaac, and Ma 02115 +1495-1000. “The Interwoven Threads of Inequality and Health.” The New Yorker,, April 2020.

  103. Christensen, Jen. “States Engaged in ’Gross Negligence’ in Covid-19 Response in Jails and Prisons, New Report Finds.” CNN,, June 2020.

  104. Christoffersen, Ashlee. ‘Race, Intersectionality and Covid-19’. Discover Society,, May 2020.

  105. Cirruzzo, Chelsea. “Coronavirus Has Put Sex Workers in the District Out of Work. A Fundraiser Is Trying to Help Them.” Washington City Paper,, April 2020.

  106. Cobb, Jelani. “How the Coronavirus Pandemic Intensifies the Fight Over Voting Rights.” The New Yorker,, April 2020.

  107. ---. “Minneapolis, the Coronavirus, and Trump’s Failure to See a Crisis Coming.” The New Yorker,, May 2020.

  108. Cohen, Elizabeth. “Moderna Increases Minority Numbers in Its Vaccine Trial, but Still Not Meeting Fauci’s Goal.” CNN,, August 2020.

  109. Cohen, Elizabeth, and Dana Vigue. “Covid-19 Vaccine Trials Have Been Slow to Recruit Black and Latino People – and That Could Delay a Vaccine.” CNN,, August 2020.

  110. Coleman, Ken. “’Strike for Black Lives’: Nursing Home Workers Rally amid COVID-19 Crisis ⋆ Michigan Advance.” Michigan Advance, July 2020.

  111. Collins, Sara R., and Elizabeth Fowler. “Repealing the Affordable Care Act Just When People Need It Most.” The Commonwealth Fund,, July 2020, doi:10.26099/y6hk-pk12.

  112. Colvin, Eplunus. “Prison System Shows Signs of COVID-19 Recovery.” Times Record,, June 2020.

  113. Conger, Kate, et al. “Native Americans Feel Devastated by the Virus Yet Overlooked in the Data.” The New York Times, July 2020.

  114. Cooney, Elizabeth. “Behind Covid-19’s Disparities: Immigration Status, Housing, and Work.” STAT, August 2020.

  115. Cooper, Brittney. “Why Are Black Women and Girls Still an Afterthought in Our Outrage Over Police Violence?” Time, June 2020.

  116. Couch, Beth. “New Model Reveals Racial Inequality Drives COVID-19 Spread.” Non Profit News,, November 2020.

  117. Coueignoux, Stephanie. “Federal Prison System’s COVID-19 Response Now Under Review.” Spectrum News 13,, September 2020.

  118. Craven, Julia. “How Racial Health Disparities Will Play Out in the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Slate Magazine, March 2020.

  119. D’Onofrio, Michael. “Black Docs: City Has Shortchanged the African-American Community.” The Philadelphia Tribune, May 2020.

  120. Daley, John. “Third Wave Coronavirus Infections Devastate Colorado’s Native American And Hispanic Communities.” Colorado Public Radio,, December 2020.

  121. Daniel, Annerieke. “For Maternal Health and Covid-19, a Racial Divide.” Human Rights Watch,, May 2020.

  122. Davis, Kelly. “Coronavirus In Jails And Prisons.” The Appeal,, August 2020.

  123. Dembosky, April. “‘All You Want Is to Be Believed’: The Impacts of Unconscious Bias in Health Care.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  124. Dolan, Laura, and Jason Carroll. “Black Americans, Hit Hardest by the Pandemic, Feel They’Re Hurt by Both the Virus and Inequities Tied to Race.” CNN,, September 2020.

  125. Donloe, Darlene. “Black Women’s Group Holds Prayer Rally for COVID-19.” Los Angeles Wave Newspapers, May 2020.

  126. Ducharme, Jamie. “Even in Wealthy Areas, People of Color Are More Likely to Get and Die from Coronavirus, Study Says.” Time,, July 2020.

  127. Durkin, Erin. “NYC’s Poorest Neighborhoods Have Highest Death Rates from Coronavirus.” Politico,, May 2020.

  128. Dwamena, Anakwa. “How Jair Bolsonaro and the Coronavirus Put Brazil’s Systemic Racism on Display.” The New Yorker,, July 2020.

  129. Eligon, John, et al. “Black Americans Face Alarming Rates of Coronavirus Infection in Some States.” The New York Times, April 2020.

  130. Ennis, Khama, and Ma 02115 +1495-1000. “As a Black ER Doctor, I See Racism Every Day. It Doesn’t Have to Be That Way.” The Washington Post, June 2020.

  131. Enonchong, Rebecca, and Felix Marquardt. “Will Racism Color How We Remember COVID-19? | Opinion.” Newsweek,, June 2020.

  132. Erickson, Lucy. “The Disproportionate Impact of COVID-19 on Women of Color.” Society for Women’s Health Research (SWHR),, April 2020.

  133. Eschner, Kat. “COVID-19 Is Exposing the Food Deserts around Native American Reservations.” Popular Science,, July 2020.

  134. Evans, Mel. “First ICE Employee Tests Positive for Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  135. ---. “‘Everybody’s Scared’: Panic At Immigrant Detention Center After Positive Coronavirus Test.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  136. Evich, Helena. Stark Racial Disparities Emerge as Families Struggle to Get Enough Food., July 2020.

  137. Facebook, et al. “Coronavirus Today: Protesting and COVID-19.” Los Angeles Times,, June 2020.

  138. Fang, Marina. “House Passes Legislation Condemning Wave Of Anti-Asian Racism.” The Huffington Post, AOL Inc., September 2020.

  139. ---. “Congressional Democrats Tell DOJ To Do More To Address COVID-19 Hate Crimes.” The Huffington Post, AOL Inc., May 2020.

  140. ---. “Black And Asian Americans Have Experienced More Racism Due To COVID-19: New Survey.” The Huffington Post,, July 2020.

  141. Feldberg, Sarah. UCSF Study Investigates Coronavirus Impact on Pregnancy., April 2020.

  142. Feldman, Nina. “Black Doctors Work to Make Coronavirus Testing More Equitable.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  143. Ferrugia, John. “COVID-19 Is Delaying Reforms To Colorado’s Mental Health System.” FRONTLINE,, May 2020.

  144. Fields, Robert. “COVID-19 Shines Light on How Healthcare Is Leaving At-Risk Populations Behind.” Medical Economics,, September 2020.

  145. Firth, Shannon. “Racism Drives Inequities in COVID-19, House Panel Told.” MedPage Today,, June 2020.

  146. Flagg, Anna. “Jails Are Coronavirus Hotbeds. How Many People Should Be Released To Slow The Spread?” The Marshall Project,, June 2020.

  147. Flagg, Anna, and Joseph Neff. “Why Jails Are So Important in the Fight Against Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  148. Flagg, Anna, et al. “COVID-19’s Toll on People of Color Is Worse Than We Knew.” The Marshall Project,, August 2020.

  149. Flitter, Emily. “Few Minority-Owned Businesses Got Relief Loans They Asked For.” The New York Times,, May 2020.

  150. ---. “Black-Owned Businesses Could Face Hurdles in Federal Aid Program.” The New York Times, June 2020.

  151. Flynn, Meagan. “‘He Gave His Life for That Hospital’: A Doctor Put off Retirement to Fight Covid-19, Only to Die of the Virus.” Washington Post, May 2020.

  152. Ford, Steve. “BAME Staff Found to Be Scared to Speak out against Inequality.” Nursing Times, Emap Limited, June 2020.

  153. Foundation, Feminist Majority. Historic Coalition of Women’s and Civil Rights Groups File Amicus Brief to Stop Alabama COVID-19 Order to Severely Restrict and Criminalize Abortion – Feminist Majority Foundation. April 2020.

  154. Francis, Dania, and Christian E. Weller. “The Black-White Wealth Gap Will Widen Educational Disparities During the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Center for American Progress,, August 2020.

  155. Frazin, Rachel. “Experts See Worrisome Link between Coronavirus, Pollution.” The Hill, April 2020.

  156. Fritz, Anita. “Senators, Public Health Officials Discuss Disparities, Inequities.” Greenfield Recorder,, June 2020.

  157. Frosch, Dan. “Covid-19 Testing Is Hampered by Shortages of Critical Ingredient.” Wall Street Journal, September 2020.

  158. Fuller, Thomas. “Coronavirus Limits California’s Efforts to Fight Fires With Prison Labor.” The New York Times, August 2020.

  159. Furlow, Bryant. “Albuquerque Hospital’s Secret Policy Separated Native American Newborns From Their Mothers.” New Mexico In Depth, June 2020.

  160. Gadermann, Anne, et al. “Mental Health Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic Hits Marginalized Groups Hardest.” The Conversation,, July 2020.

  161. Gallardo, Marly. “I Hate My Prison Dorm So Much, I Enjoyed COVID-19 Quarantine in the Box.” The Marshall Project,, September 2020.

  162. Gallo, Kathryn. “Sen. Tina Smith Addresses Native American Communities Negatively Impacted by COVID-19.” KVRR Local News, June 2020.

  163. Galvin, Molly. “Historically Black Colleges and Universities Take Center Stage as the Nation Responds to COVID-19 and Systemic Racism | National Academies.” The National Academies Sciences, Engineering, Medicine,, July 2020.

  164. Gamblin, Marlysa. “Race, Hunger, and COVID-19: The Impact on African Americans.” Bread for the World,, April 2020.

  165. Gant, Thomas. “I Was a Prison Hospice Aide. Then Came Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  166. Gardner, Amy, et al. “Trump Escalates Campaign to Discredit Mail Balloting, Threatening Federal Funds to Two Battleground States.” The Washington Post, May 2020.

  167. Gebeloff, David, et al. “The Striking Racial Divide in How Covid-19 Has Hit Nursing Homes.” The New York Times, May 2020.

  168. Georges, Salwan, and via Getty Images. “Coronavirus Leaves Foster Children With Nowhere to Go.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  169. Ghoshal, Neela. “Uganda LGBT Shelter Residents Arrested on COVID-19 Pretext.” Human Rights Watch,, April 2020.

  170. Gibbs, Audrey. “COVID-19 Leaves Black Domestic Workers Strained, Unseen and Vulnerable.” Ms Magazine, July 2020.

  171. Glass, Kelly. “When Maternity Wards in Black Neighborhoods Disappear.” The New York Times, May 2020.

  172. Glionna, John M. “One School, Two Choices: A Study in Classroom vs. Distance Learning.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  173. Godoy, Maria. “Black Medicare Patients With COVID-19 Nearly 4 Times As Likely To End Up In Hospital.”,, June 2020.

  174. Godoy, Maria, and Daniel Wood. “What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?” NPR,, May 2020.

  175. Goff, Phillip Atiba. “How Racism Amplifies Covid-19 Risk for Everyone.” Vox,, October 2020.

  176. Goldbaum, Christina. “41 Transit Workers Dead: Crisis Takes Staggering Toll on Subways.” The New York Times, April 2020.

  177. Goldberg, Emma. “George Floyd Protests Add New Front Line for Coronavirus Doctors.” The New York Times, June 2020.

  178. Goldstein, Dana. “Research Shows Students Falling Months Behind During Virus Disruptions.” The New York Times, June 2020.

  179. Gomez, Alan, et al. “’An Unbelievable Chain of Oppression’: America’s History of Racism Was a Preexisting Condition for COVID-19.” USA Today,, October 2020.

  180. Gonnerman, Jennifer. “A Transit Worker’s Survival Story. Driving a New York City Bus during a Pandemic and an Uprising.” The New Yorker,, August 2020.

  181. ---. “The Purgatory of Parole Incarcerations During the Coronavirus Crisis.” The New Yorker, April 2020.

  182. Goodman, Amy. “Deaths of Inequality: AOC on Black and Latinx Communities at Epicenter of Epicenter of the Pandemic.” Democracy Now!,, April 2020.

  183. Gopalakrishna, Pratibha. “Anthony Fauci on Lessons Learned so Far in the Covid-19 Pandemic.” STAT, September 2020.

  184. Graham, Judith. “Lifetime Experiences Help Older Adults Build Resilience to Pandemic Trauma.” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  185. Graham, Megan. “World Health Organization Reports New Coronavirus Cases Reach All-Time High.” CNBC,, July 2020.

  186. Gravlee, Clarence. “Racism, Not Genetics, Explains Why Black Americans Are Dying Of COVID-19.” Scientific American, June 2020.

  187. Gray, Amber. “Can College Programs in Prison Survive COVID-19?” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  188. Gray, Madison J. “NYC Black And Latino Communities Showing Higher Death Rates Than Affluent Neighborhoods.” BET,, May 2020.

  189. Green, Jeff, and Jackie Gu. “The Covid Death Rate in Majority-Black Counties Is Getting Worse.”, July 2020.

  190. Greenhouse, Steven. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Intensified Systemic Economic Racism Against Black Americans.” The New Yorker,, July 2020.

  191. Greig, Jonathan. “Kamala Harris And Cory Booker Call On FBI To Address Fear Over Cops’ Response To Black People Wearing Face Masks.” Blavity News,, April 2020.

  192. Grey, Heather. “More Evidence That Black Americans Face High Risks from COVID-19.” Healthline,, August 2020.

  193. Griesbach, Rebecca, and Timothy Williams. “San Quentin Ordered to Reduce Prison Population by Half Over Virus Fears.” The New York Times, October 2020.

  194. Guida, Victoria. “Fed Study: Covid-19 Overwhelmingly Strikes Counties with Most Black Businesses.” POLITICO,, August 2020.

  195. Guo, Eileen. “As Covid-19 Cases in Prisons Climb, Data on Race Remain Largely Obscured.” STAT, August 2020.

  196. Hager, Eli. “Solitary, Brawls, No Teachers: Coronavirus Makes Juvenile Jails Look Like Adult Prisons.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  197. ---. “‘I Want to See My Child.’ Juvenile Lockups Cut Visits Over COVID-19 Fears.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  198. ---. “What We Actually Know About Child Abuse During the Pandemic.” The Marshall Project,, June 2020.

  199. ---. “Where Coronavirus Is Surging—And Electronic Surveillance, Too.” The Marshall Project,, November 2020.

  200. ---. “A Year After Prison, He Has a Job, a Fiancée—And a Week Left of Freedom.” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  201. ---. “‘Juvenile Lifers’ Were Meant to Get a Second Chance. COVID-19 Could Get Them First.” The Marshall Project,, June 2020.

  202. ---. “The 470,000 Potential Voters Most Likely To Be Disenfranchised Next Election.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  203. Hager, Eli, and via Getty Images. “Trump Administration Tells Some Business Owners ‘Do Not Apply’ for Coronavirus Loans.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  204. ---. “Your Zoom Interrogation Is About To Start.” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  205. Hamilton, Keegan, and Keri Blakinger. “‘Con Air’ Is Spreading COVID-19 All Over the Federal Prison System.” The Marshall Project,, August 2020.

  206. Hanna, Jason. “In Mississippi, More White People Now Have Gotten Covid-19 than African Americans.” CNN,, October 2020.

  207. Harnik, Andrew. “How Bill Barr’s COVID-19 Prisoner Release Plan Could Favor White People.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  208. Harrison, David. “Public Transit Use Is Associated With Higher Coronavirus Death Rates, Researchers Find.” The Wall Street Journal, June 2020.

  209. Harrison, Dr. Dave. “As Progress Continues on Coronavirus Vaccine, Experts Debate Who Should Be 1st to Receive It.” ABC News,, September 2020.

  210. Hart, Anna Maria, and Angela Barry-Jester. “Hard Lives Made Harder by COVID: Homeless Endure a ‘Slow-Moving Train Wreck.’” Kaiser Health News, October 2020.

  211. Hart, Ariel. “COVID-19 Swamps Another Rural Georgia County.” Atlanta Journal Constitution, May 2020.

  212. Hart, Marion. “UNICEF USA BrandVoice: Why COVID-19 Is Hitting Black And Hispanic Children Especially Hard.” Forbes,, August 2020.

  213. Hawkins, B. Denise. “New Data Tracking System Highlights Race Disparities Among COVID-19-Related Deaths.” Diverse Education,, July 2020.

  214. Hawkins, Beth. New Research Predicts Steep COVID Learning Losses Will Widen Already Dramatic Achievement Gaps Within Classrooms. June 2020.

  215. Hawkins, Derek, et al. “Former FDA Commissioner, Other Officials Warn Mass Protests Could Cause Spikes in Infections.” Washington Post, May 2020.

  216. Hayden, Nicole. “Project Roomkey Funding Ends Soon. Over 11,000 Californians Could Become Homeless, Again.”,, October 2020.

  217. Healy, Jack, and Dionne Searcey. “Two Crises Convulse a Nation: A Pandemic and Police Violence.” The New York Times, May 2020.

  218. Herbert, Gerald. “How Is The Justice System Responding to the Coronavirus? It Depends On Where You Live.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  219. Hilgers, Lauren. “How Texas Republicans Politicized the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker,, July 2020.

  220. Hofschneider, Anita. “Hawaii COVID-19 Data For Race And Ethnicity Is Missing.” Honolulu Civil Beat,, October 2020.

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  228. Howard, Jacqueline, and Kristen Rogers. “US Racial Inequality May Be Just as Deadly as Covid-19.” CNN Health,, August 2020.

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  230. Hughes, Trevor. “Segregated Parks Linked to Higher COVID-19 Deaths for Black and Latino Americans.” USA TODAY,, August 2020.

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  235. Johnson, Cary, and Maurice Chammah. “As a Mom Working In a Prison, I Worry About Bringing Coronavirus Home.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  236. Johnson, Kaley. “Women Say They Face COVID, Lack of Food, Abuse at ‘House of Horror’ Fort Worth Prison.” Fort Worth Star-Telegram,, August 2020.

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  240. KWCH. “Kansas Sees Nation’s Largest Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Deaths.” KWCH News,, May 2020.

  241. Kagan, Donald, and Nicole Lewis. “I Was at Rikers While COVID-19 Spread. Getting Out Was Just as Surreal.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  242. Kaplan, Elise, and Theresa Davis. “’Huge Disparity’ in COVID-19 Death Rates for Native Americans in NM.” Albuquerque Journal, May 2020.

  243. Kaplan, Fred. “It Doesn’t Look Like the Protests Are Causing a COVID-19 Spike.” Slate Magazine,, June 2020.

  244. Kaplan, Karen. “CDC Data Reveal Another Racial Disparity for COVID-19 Victims — Age at Death.” Los Angeles Times,, July 2020.

  245. Kassie, Emily. “‘I Do Not Want to Die Somewhere Like This.’” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  246. Kassie, Emily, and Barbara Marcolini. “How ICE Exported the Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  247. Kassie, Emily, and Ben C. Solomon. “‘Nowhere Else to Go.’” The Marshall Project,, August 2020.

  248. Kaur, Harmeet. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Hitting Black and Brown Americans Especially Hard on All Fronts.” CNN,, May 2020.

  249. Kavi, Aishvarya. “Journalist Bob Woodward Releases New Book, Rage, Detailing the Moments President Donald Trump Received News about COVID-19 in January, and His Consequent Downplaying of the Virus to the American Public from February Onward.” The New York Times, September 2020.

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  254. Kimmell, Ken. “Perpetrators of Vile, Racist Acts Must Be Brought to Justice.” Union of Concerned Scientists,, May 2020.

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  256. King, Noel. “Why COVID-19 Disproportionately Impacts Latino Communities.” NPR,, July 2020.

  257. Klasing, Amanda. “US Structural Racism Shapes Access to Water During Covid-19.” Human Rights Watch,, July 2020.

  258. Koeppel, Barbara. “Amid Widespread Hunger and Poverty, Republicans in Alabama Divert Covid Relief Funds to Donors.” Washington Spectator,, October 2020.

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  261. Kozuch, Elliott. “HRC Releases Research Brief on LGBTQ Community and COVID-19.” HRC,, March 2020.

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  263. ---. “Expert: Food Deserts in Black Communities Partly Explain Coronavirus Vulnerability.” Daily Herald,, April 2020.

  264. Kroman, David. COVID-19 Leading to Illegal Jail Stays for Inmates with Mental Illness | Crosscut., May 2020.

  265. Kuhr, Elizabeth. “Gay Men Restricted from Donating Plasma to U.K. Coronavirus Trials.” NBC News,, May 2020.

  266. Lakhani, Nina, and Jonathan Watts. “Environmental Justice Means Racial Justice, Say Activists.” The Guardian, June 2020.

  267. Lantsman, Jacqueline. “Pell Grant Expansion Is Key During the Recession.” Medium,, May 2020.

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  270. Latif Dahir, Abdi. “Kenya’s Health Workers, Unprotected and Falling Ill, Walk Off Job.” The New York Times,, August 2020.

  271. Laughland, Oliver. ‘“It”s Bad When You Have to Drag Yourself to the Hospital”: US South Struggles against Covid-19’. The Guardian, August 2020.

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  273. Lavoie, Denise, et al. “US Prison Populations down 8% amid Coronavirus Outbreak.” The Seattle Times,, July 2020.

  274. Layne, Nathan, and Gabriella Borter. “Seven U.S. States Post Record COVID Cases, Curfew Ordered in Miami.” US News & World Report,, July 2020.

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  277. Lee, Kurtis, et al. “In Minneapolis, Months after George Floyd’s Death, Black Residents Cope with ’Racial Battle Fatigue.’” Los Angeles Times,, August 2020.

  278. Lee, Susan. “Coronavirus Has Sparked Another Epidemic in My Prison: Anti-Asian Racism.” The Marshall Project,, December 2020.

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  280. Leonard, Kimberley. “Surgeon General: Racism to Blame for Coronavirus Toll on People of Color.” Business Insider,, June 2020.

  281. Leonard, Kimberly. “The Coronavirus Is Devastating Communities of Color. The Trump Administration’s Top Doctor Blames ’Structural Racism’ and Shares His Plans to Take Action.” Business Insider,, June 2020.

  282. Lerner, Louise. “Study: Nearly 16% of Illinois COVID-19 Cases Linked to Spread from Chicago Jail.” University of Chicago News,, June 2020.

  283. Levey, Noam N. “Who Will Get the First COVID Vaccines? California and Other States Race to Decide.” Los Angeles Times,, November 2020.

  284. Li, Cornelia. “How Long Can You Hide a Dead Body in a Prison Cell?” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  285. Li, Weihua, and Beth Schwartzapfel. “Is Domestic Violence Rising During the Coronavirus Shutdown? Here’s What the Data Shows.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

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  289. Lindstrom, Rebecca. “Breaking down Georgia’s COVID-19 Death Statistics.” 11Alive,, May 2020.

  290. Liptak, Adam. “Civil Rights Law Protects Gay and Transgender Workers, Supreme Court Rules.” The New York Times, June 2020.

  291. Long, Heather, et al. “Washington Post Analysis Find That the Covid-19 Recession Is the Most Unequal in Modern U.S. History.” Washington Post,, September 2020.

  292. Lopez, Oscar. “Economic Impact of Coronavirus Zeroes in on Black LGBT+ Americans.” Reuters, August 2020.

  293. Lu, Weihua. “Police Arrested Fewer People During Coronavirus Shutdowns—Even Fewer Were White.” The Marshall Project,, June 2020.

  294. López, Canela. “Oprah Winfrey Says the Coronavirus Is ’Ravaging’ the Black Community.” Insider, US edition, Insider, Inc., April 2020.

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  296. Mahadevan, Tara C. “Beyoncé’s Charity and NAACP to Award Grants to Black-Owned Businesses.” Complex,, July 2020.

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  299. Manzella, Sam. “160+ LGBTQ Centers in Desperate Need of COVID-19 Relief Funds.” LOGO News,, April 2020.

  300. Mark, Michelle. “More US Prisoners Have Died of COVID-19 in Recent Months than Have Been Executed in the Last 20 Years.” Insider,, August 2020.

  301. Martin, Michael. “The Coronavirus’ Outsized Impact On California’s Latino Communities.”,, July 2020.

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  307. McCall, Vivian, and Mariah Woelfel. “How Has LGBTQ Community Fared In COVID-19? That’s Hard to Say.”,, June 2020.

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  310. McFarling, Usha Lee. Dermatology Faces a Reckoning: Lack of Darker Skin in Textbooks and Journals Harms Care for Patients of Color. July 2020.

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  315. Metcalf, Jerry. “No, Your Coronavirus Quarantine Is Not Just Like Being in Prison.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

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  317. Miller, Andy. “Race and COVID: Stark Disparities in Rural Georgia.” Georgia Health News, October 2020.

  318. Miller, Leanne, and Meg Tirrell. “Moderna Slows Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Enrollment to Ensure Minority Representation, CEO Says.” CNBC,, September 2020.

  319. Mineo, Liz. “Documenting the Lives of Black Americans in the Age of COVID.” Harvard Gazette, September 2020.

  320. ---. “How COVID Turned a Spotlight on Weak Worker Rights.” Harvard Gazette, June 2020.

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  322. Molteni, Megan. “What Minnesota’s Protests Are Revealing About Covid-19 Spread.” Wired, June 2020.

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  324. Moreau, Julie. “LGBTQ People Face Higher Unemployment amid Pandemic, Survey Finds.” NBC News,, May 2020.

  325. Morrison, Aaron. “Democratic Lawmakers Call for Racial Data in Virus Testing.” Assoicated Press,, March 2020.

  326. Mullings, Morgan. “Social Factors Contribute to COVID-19 Cases among Blacks and Latinos.” The Bay State Banner,, September 2020.

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  330. Neel, Joe. “NPR Poll: Financial Pain From Coronavirus Pandemic ’Much, Much Worse’ Than Expected.”,, September 2020.

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  332. ---. “Photos Show No Social Distancing In Federal Halfway House.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  333. ---. “Why Did It Take the Feds Weeks to Report COVID-19 Cases In Privately Run Prisons?” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  334. Neff, Joseph, and Cary Aspinwall. “These Prisons Are Doing Mass Testing For COVID-19—And Finding Mass Infections.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  335. Neff, Joseph, and Keri Blakinger. “First Came The Pandemic, Then Came the Raw Sewage.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  336. ---. “Michael Cohen and Paul Manafort Got to Leave Federal Prison Due to COVID-19. They’Re The Exception.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  337. ---. “Few Federal Prisoners Released Under COVID-19 Emergency Policies.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  338. ---. “Federal Prisons Agency ‘Put Staff in Harm’s Way’ of Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  339. Neff, Joseph, and Dan Kane. “Freed From Prison, Dead from COVID-19, Not Even Counted.” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  340. Neff, Joseph, and Beth Schwartz. “Infected, Incarcerated—and Coming to an ICU Near You?” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

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  348. ---. “7 Ways Congress Can Cut COVID-19’s Health Inequities.” American Medical Association,, July 2020.

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  358. Owens, Adam. “Physicians Offer Free COVID-19 Testing for Minority Communities, Hardest Hit by Virus.”,, September 2020.

  359. Pandika, Melissa. “Pregnant Latinx Women Are Contracting COVID-19 at an Alarming Rate.” Mic,, August 2020.

  360. Papenfuss, Mary. “Surgeon General Singles Out People Of Color To Stop Alcohol, Drugs In COVID-19 Fight.” HuffPost,, April 2020.

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  364. Peek, Monica. “Commentary: Food Insecurity Adds to COVID-19 Vulnerability for Too Many.” Chicago Tribune (Online), Tribune Publishing Company, LLC, April 2020.

  365. Pereira, Sydney. “Man With Coronavirus Dies While Jailed For Parole Violation On Rikers Island.” Gothamist,, April 2020.

  366. Perez, Matt. “Hispanic, Black And American Indian Children Die From The Coronavirus At Disproportionate Rates, CDC Finds.” Forbes,, September 2020.

  367. Perrett, Connor. “Black People Account for 72% of COVID-19 Deaths in Chicago While Making up Less than a Third of City’s Population, Mayor Says.” Business Insider, US edition, April 2020.

  368. Peña, Mauricio. “Help Protect Pregnant Black Women On South, West Sides Through New Masks For Moms Initiative.” Block Club Chicago,, April 2020.

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  370. Podesta, John, and Cecilia Martinez. “COVID-19 Relief and Economic Recovery Must Dismantle Environmental Racism.” TheHill,, July 2020.

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  374. Powell, Catherine. “The Color and Gender of COVID: Essential Workers, Not Disposable People.” Think Global Health,, June 2020.

  375. Preston, Julia. “Migrant Children Still Face Speedy Deportation Hearings in COVID-19 Hotspots.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

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  380. ---. “Why the Coronavirus More Often Strikes Children of Color.” The New York Times, September 2020.

  381. Rainford, Monique. “Black Pregnant Women Are Already at Higher Risk. The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Making It Worse.”,, May 2020.

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  386. Rios, Edwin, and Sinduja Rangarajan. “COVID-19 Has Infected and Killed Black People at Alarming Rates. This Data Proves It.” Mother Jones, April 2020.

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  388. Roberts, Jane. “COVID Testing Lags in Latino Community When Workers Can’t Afford Job Loss.” The Daily Memphian,, June 2020.

  389. Robertson, Sally. “African American Communities More Burdened by COVID-19, Say Researchers.” News Medical Life Sciences,, May 2020.

  390. Rodriguez, Rubén. “The Pandemic’s Impact on Education.” Harvard Gazette, April 2020.

  391. Romero, Farida Jhabvala. “ICE Detainees Go on Hunger Strike to Press for COVID-19 Protections.” The World from PRX,, September 2020.

  392. Romo, Vanessa. “Black Mayors Call For Governors To Let Them Enforce Rules To Fight COVID-19.”,, July 2020.

  393. Romoser, James. “Siding with Jail Officials, Court Lifts Injunction That Imposed Coronavirus Safety Measures.” SCOTUSblog,, August 2020.

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  399. Salamanca, Jean-Paul. “Latino Advocates: COVID-19 Stats Don’t Include Immigrants Who Avoid Tests, Die at Home.” Newsday,, July 2020.

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  401. Samuels, Michelle. “A Snapshot of How COVID-19 Is Impacting the LGBTQ Community.” Boston University,, July 2020.

  402. Sanchez, Dana. “80 Percent Of Inmates Who Died Of Covid In Texas County Jails Were Never Convicted Of A Crime.” Moguldom,, November 2020.

  403. Sanchez, Gabriel R., et al. “COVID-19 Is Having a Devastating Impact on the Economic Well-Being of Latino Families.” Brookings, July 2020.

  404. Sanchez, Marcio Jose. “What Happens When Cops Say They Are Slowing Arrests? Crime Falls.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

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  408. Santhanam, Laura. “WATCH: Health Officials Testify on Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Response.” PBS NewsHour,, July 2020.

  409. Santo, Alysia. “Jails Turn to UVC Robots To Fight Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

  410. Satterfield, Kolbie. “Black Nurses Matter March on DC Streets Helps Fight for Health Disparities in Black Community.” wusa9.Com,, August 2020.

  411. Schwartz, Matthew. “Children Can Get Severe COVID-19, CDC Says — Especially Black And Hispanic Children.”,, August 2020.

  412. Schwartzapfel, Beth. “Probation and Parole Officers Are Rethinking Their Rules As Coronavirus Spreads.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

  413. ---. “A Dangerous Limbo: Probation and Parole in the Time of COVID-19.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

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  415. Scism, Leslie. “Those Dying From Covid-19 Are Least Likely to Own Life Insurance.” Wall Street Journal, September 2020.

  416. Scott, Dylan. “Housing Segregation Left Black Americans More Vulnerable to Covid-19.” Vox,, July 2020.

  417. Scott, Michele. “During the Pandemic, a Prison Funeral for Our Angel.” The Marshall Project,, August 2020.

  418. Segal, David. “Housekeepers Face a Disaster Generations in the Making.” The New York Times, September 2020.

  419. ---. “Why Are There Almost No Memorials to the Flu of 1918?” The New York Times, May 2020.

  420. Seipel, Brooke. “1,000 Inmates at Texas Federal Prison Test Positive for COVID-19.” TheHill,, July 2020.

  421. Semple, Kirk. “Caribbean, Struggling in the Pandemic, Braces for Hurricane Season.” The New York Times,, July 2020.

  422. Serkez, Yaryna. “Who Is Most Likely to Die From the Coronavirus?” The New York Times, June 2020.

  423. Servick, Kelly. “‘Huge Hole’ in COVID-19 Testing Data Makes It Harder to Study Racial Disparities.” Science | AAAS,, July 2020.

  424. ServickSep. 17, Kelly, et al. “Pandemic Inspires New Push to Shrink Jails and Prisons.” Science | AAAS,, September 2020.

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  426. Sgaier, Sema. “Dr. Sema Sgaier Highlights the Surgo Foundation’s COVID Community Vulnerability Index, Designed for Equitable Vaccine Aallocation.” TheHill,, October 2020.

  427. Shalby, Colleen. “L.A. County Finally Seeing Declines in Latino, Black Coronavirus Mortality Rates.” Los Angeles Times,, August 2020.

  428. Sharma, Damini, et al. “Prison Populations Drop by 100,000 During Pandemic.” The Marshall Project,, July 2020.

  429. Shih Bion, Xenia. “Efforts to Reduce Black Maternal Mortality Complicated by COVID-19.” California Health Care Foundation, April 2020.

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  433. Simon, Mallory. “Over 1,000 Health Professionals Sign a Letter Saying, Don’t Shut down Protests Using Coronavirus Concerns as an Excuse.” CNN,, June 2020.

  434. Simpson. Fearing Coronavirus, Many Rural Black Women Avoid Hospitals to Give Birth at Home., April 2020.

  435. Simpson, Tonya, and Luke Barr. “As Coronavirus Spreads through Nation’s Jails and Prisons, Lawmakers Demand More Transparency on Toll.” ABC News,, August 2020.

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  438. Snow, Anita. “Latino, Black Neighborhoods Struggle with COVID-19 Test Disparities.” PBS NewsHour,, July 2020.

  439. Sokolow, Amy. “With Science and Scripture, a Pastor Fights Covid-19 Vaccine Skepticism.” STAT, August 2020.

  440. Solman, Paul. “The Economics behind Racial Coronavirus Disparities.” PBS NewsHour,, July 2020.

  441. Spata, Christopher. “Long-Haulers: Tampa Bay Residents Can’t Shake COVID-19 Symptoms Months Later.” Tampa Bay Times,, October 2020.

  442. Stafford, Kat, and Hannah Fingerhut. “Poll: Black Americans Most Likely to Know a COVID-19 Victim.” Associated Press,, June 2020.

  443. Stafford, Kat, et al. “Outcry over Racial Data Grows as Virus Slams Black Americans.” Associated Press,, April 2020.

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  449. Stiles, Matt, and Hailey Branson Potts. “Thousands March in Hollywood for LGBTQ Rights and Racial Justice.” Los Angeles Times,, June 2020.

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  451. Strauss, Valerie. “Perspective | Why the Coronavirus Crisis Could Hit Historically Black Colleges and Universities Especially Hard.” Washington Post, April 2020.

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  457. Tahir, Darius, and Adam Cancryn. “American Indian Tribes Thwarted in Efforts to Get Coronavirus Data.” POLITICO,, June 2020.

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  482. ---. “A New Tactic To Fight Coronavirus: Send The Homeless From Jails To Hotels.” The Marshall Project,, April 2020.

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  484. Villarosa, Linda, and L. Kasimu Harris. “‘A Terrible Price’: The Deadly Racial Disparities of Covid-19 in America.” The New York Times, May 2020.

  485. Vinopal, Courtney. “WATCH: Doctors Testify on COVID-19 Racial Disparities among Seniors.” PBS NewsHour,, July 2020.

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  517. Yuko, Elizabeth. “How Dangerous Is It to Protest During a Pandemic?” Rolling Stone,, May 2020.

  518. Yurcaba, Jo. “The Majority of Children Who Die from COVID-19 Are BIPOC, Says CDC.” Motherly,, September 2020.

  519. Zalubowski, David. “How Coronavirus Is Disrupting the Death Penalty.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  520. Zarefsky, Marc. “Why African American Communities Are Being Hit Hard by COVID-19.” American Medical Association,, May 2020.

  521. Zimmer, Carl. “DNA Inherited From Neanderthals May Increase Risk of Covid-19.” The New York Times, July 2020.

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  523. Zuluaga, Maritza. “How Is Online Education Affecting Latinx Children During COVID-19?” AL DÍA News,, September 2020.

  524. da Costa, Pedro Nicolaci. “The Covid-19 Crisis Has Wiped Out Nearly Half Of Black Small Businesses.” Forbes,, August 2020.

  525. della Cava, Marco. “Asian Americans in San Francisco Are Dying at Alarming Rates from COVID-19: Racism Is to Blame.” USA Today,, October 2020.

  526. ABC 11 News. “ABC News Announces 3 Days of Coverage Devoted to Race, Class during Coronavirus Pandemic.” ABC 11 Eyewitness News,, May 2020.

  527. AHA. AHA Resource Spotlights Efforts to Address Social Needs and Health Inequity during COVID-19., August 2020.

  528. AIDS United. Ending Racist Systems. POZ Publishing, L.L.C., June 2020.

  529. Adanna. “8 Black Homeschool Moms Share Advice for Homeschooling During COVID-19.” Rattles & Heels, March 2020.

  530. American Heart Association News. “AHA News: Researchers Explore How COVID-19 Affects Heart Health in Black Women.” US News & World Report,, August 2020.

  531. Associated Press Television News. “Tribal Health Board: Native Americans Hit Hard by COVID-19.” Republic World,, June 2020.

  532. Associated Press. COVID-19 Racial Disparities: Inside the Outbreak. April 2020.

  533. ---. “Thousands Expected to Walk off the Job Monday to Protest Racial Inequality.” Los Angeles Times,, July 2020.

  534. Barron-Lopez, Laura, and Alice Miranda Ollstein. “Trump’s Fragmented Pandemic Response May Undermine Push to Address Racial Disparities.” POLITICO,, July 2020.

  535. Barron-Lopez, Laura, et al. “‘People Can’t Ignore It Anymore’: Across the Country, Minorities Hit Hardest by Pandemic.” POLITICO,, July 2020.

  536. Bettinger-Lopez,, Caroline. “A Double Pandemic: Domestic Violence in the Age of COVID-19.” Council on Foreign Relations,, May 2020.

  537. Black Trans Advocacy Coalition (BTAC). “Free COVID-19 Care Packages for the Transgender Community.” BTAC,, 2020.

  538. Blood Equality. “Love Is Love, & Blood Is Blood.” Blood Equality,, 2020.

  539. CBS 58 Newsroom. “’Societal Failure:’ Milwaukee Urban League Discusses Impact of COVID-19 on African American Community.” CBS58,, May 2020.

  540. CBS News. “Dr. Fauci on Why the Coronavirus Is Wreaking Havoc on Black Communities.” CBS News,, July 2020.

  541. ---. “Coronavirus Is Third Biggest Cause of Death among Black Americans, Experts Say.” CBS News,, August 2020.

  542. CBS News, et al. Black and Latino Americans Underrepresented in COVID-19 Vaccine Trials, despite Being Hit the Hardest., September 2020.

  543. CBS SF. Fifth San Quentin Death Row Inmate Dies During Prison COVID-19 Outbreak. July 2020.

  544. CNN. “Prison Inmates Are Twice as Likely to Die of Covid-19 than Those on the Outside, New Report Finds.” CBS58,, September 2020.

  545. Cheney-Rice, Zak. “‘We’Re Going to All Start Dropping’: Rikers Inmates on Being Prisoners of COVID.” Intelligencer New York Magazine,, April 2020.

  546. Corrections One Staff. “Data Analyzes COVID-19 Impact on Jail Populations.” Corrections One,, June 2020.

  547. Curve Staff. “Human Rights Campaign Releases New Data Showing Latinx LGBTQ People Suffer Disproportionate Impact From COVID-19 Economic Fallout.” CURVE,, September 2020.

  548. Dartagnan. “Dear Right-Wing Protesters: Your ’Liberty’ to Swing Your Fist Ends Just Where My Nose Begins.” Daily Kos,, April 2020.

  549. DocWire News. Comorbidities Associated with Mortality in 31,461 Adults with COVID-19 in the United States: A Federated Electronic Medical Record Analysis., September 2020.

  550. Equal Justice Initiative Staff. “Covid-19 Cases Increasing Dramatically in Prisons.” Equal Justice Initiative,, June 2020.

  551. Equal Justice Initiative. “Covid-19’s Impact on People in Prison.” Equal Justice Initiative,, May 2020.

  552. FCB Health Network. “Blood Equality Now! Gay and Bisexual Men Who Beat COVID-19 Banned From Donating Plasma.” Cision PR Newswire,, September 2020.

  553. Flores-Villalobos, Joan. “Black Deaths and Black Mourning in the Time of Coronavirus.” AAIHS, April 2020.

  554. Francis-Sharma, Lauren. “I Thought the Pandemic Would Give My Kids a Break from the Reality of Being Black in America. I Was Wrong.” Https://,, June 2020.

  555. Harvard University Center for African Studies. “Joint Statement on Xenophobic and Racist Actions in Response to COVID-19.” Harvard University Center for African Studies,, April 2020.

  556. Human Rights Watch. “Panama: Government Takes Step to End Quarantine Gender Discrimination.” Human Rights Watch,, May 2020.

  557. Insider NJ. “Sumter & Jimenez Bill to Create COVID-19 Pandemic Task Force to Study Racial and Health Disparities Approved by Assembly Panel.” Insider NJ,, June 2020.

  558. International Labour Organization. COVID-19 Cruelly Highlights Inequalities and Threatens to Deepen Them. March 2020.

  559. Johnson-Hargrove, Desha. “Coronavirus Killed My Husband. Stay Home to Save Others.” Time, April 2020.

  560. Kaiser Health. “How COVID Spikes May Impact Election Day Turnout In Key States.” Kaiser Health News, November 2020.

  561. Karaca-Mandic, Pinar, and Soumya Sen. “COVID-19 Hospitalizations Analysis Shows Disparities across Racial and Ethnic Groups.” ScienceDaily,, August 2020.

  562. Kelsey Kauffman. “Why Jails Are Key to ‘Flattening the Curve’ of Coronavirus.” The Appeal,, March 2020.

  563. Lambda Legal. “Lambda Legal Sues Trump Administration Over Ban on Speech About Systemic Racism, Sexism, and Implicit Bias.” Lambda Legal,, November 2020.

  564. Lisa Cooper. The Silver Lining in COVID-19’s Dark Clouds. 2020.

  565. Los Angeles Times Staff. “Tracking L.A.’s Effort to Protect Homeless People from Coronavirus.” Los Angeles Times,, November 2020.

  566. MPR News Staff. “May 31 Update on COVID-19 in MN: Death Toll Passes 1K.” MPR News,, May 2020.

  567. Meadows-Fernandez, A. Rochaun, et al. “Black Pregnant Women Face a Mortality Crisis—and Now a Pandemic. Can Tech Help?” Fast Company,, May 2020.

  568. NAACP. “2020 Racial Justice Summit: Developing a Reconstruction Agenda for Black Boston.” NAACP Boston Branch,, May 2020.

  569. NPR. “Harvard Researcher Discusses Why COVID-19 Is Devastating Communities Of Color.”,, September 2020.

  570. NYU Langone Health. “New Study Finds Racial Disparities in COVID-19-Related Deaths Exist Beyond Income Differences in 10 Large U.S. Cities.” Cision PR Newswire,, July 2020.

  571. National Academies of Sciences, Engineering, and Medicine. Framework for Equitable Allocation of COVID-19 Vaccine. The National Academies Press, 2020.

  572. National Institutes of Health. “NIH Funds Community Engagement Research Efforts in Areas Hardest Hit by COVID-19.” National Institutes of Health (NIH),, September 2020.

  573. National Urban League. “2020 State Of Black America Examines The Depth Of Systemic Inequality Exposed By The Coronavirus Epidemic.” State of Black America,, September 2020.

  574. PBS NewsHour. “How Structural Racism Is Magnifying the Public Health Crisis.” PBS NewsHour,, July 2020.

  575. PEN America. “Egyptian Writer Detained for Protesting Prison Conditions That Could Worsen COVID-19 Spread.” PEN America,, March 2020.

  576. Peter S. Goodman. “The Other Way Covid Will Kill: Hunger.” New York Times, September 2020.

  577. Public Policy Institute. “New Analysis Looks at Jail Populations amid COVID-19 Pandemic.” Indiana University Public Policy Institute,, June 2020.

  578. Rashawn Ray. “How to Reduce the Racial Gap in COVID-19 Deaths.” Brookings, The Brookings Institution, April 2020.

  579. Rosenzweig-Ziff, Dan. “Incarcerated Texans Are Dying from COVID-19 at a Rate 35% Higher than Rest of the U.S. Prison Population, UT Study Finds.” The Texas Tribune,, November 2020.

  580. San Diego Community Newspaper Group. Dr. Daniela Weiskopf Awarded $1.4 Million to Study COVID-19 in Latinx Americans with University of Peurto Rico., October 2020.

  581. Simmons-Duffin, Selena, and Pien Huang. “CDC Employees Call For Racial Justice At The Federal Agency.” NPR,, July 2020.

  582. Somvichian-Clausen, Austa. “Latinos Disproportionately Affected by Coronavirus, Sheds a Light onto Existing Inequities.” The Hill,, August 2020.

  583. State of Black America, and Johns Hopkins Center for Health Equity. “Johns Hopkins Report: Covid-19 by the Numbers.” State of Black America,, 2020.

  584. The Associated Press. “UN Chief: Virus Reversed Fragile Progress on Gender Equality.” The New York Times,, August 2020.

  585. ---. “COVID-19 Outbreak Reported at Fort Worth Federal Medical Prison.” NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth, July 2020.

  586. ---. “National Guard Helps Operate Prison amid COVID-19.” Dubois County Herald,, September 2020.

  587. The Economist Staff. “Closing Schools for Covid-19 Does Lifelong Harm and Widens Inequality.” The Economist, April 2020.

  588. ---. “Woes Compounded: Covid-19 Exposes America’s Racial Health Gap.” The Economist, April 2020.

  589. The Marshall Project. “How Prisons in Each State Are Restricting Visits Due to Coronavirus.” The Marshall Project,, March 2020.

  590. ---. “Thousands of Sick Federal Prisoners Sought Compassionate Release. 98 Percent Were Denied.” The Marshall Project,, October 2020.

  591. ---. “A State-by-State Look at Coronavirus in Prisons.” The Marshall Project,, May 2020.

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  594. UCLA. “Blacks and Latinos Far More Likely to Be Facing Housing Displacement during Pandemic.”,, August 2020.

  595. UNESCO. “Mapping of Online Articles on Covid-19 and Gender.” UNESCO,, April 2020.

  596. United Nations Human Rights. “COVID-19: The Suffering and Resilience of LGBT Persons Must Be Visible and Inform the Actions of States.” OHCHR,, May 2020.

  597. University of Massachusetts Boston. “COVID-19/Housing/Climate Change Town Hall: How Are You Seeing the Pandemic Impact Housing Stability in Boston?” UMass Boston News,, July 2020.

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Scholarly Publications

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  3. Abbasi, Jennifer. “Taking a Closer Look at COVID-19, Health Inequities, and Racism.” JAMA; Chicago, American Medical Association, June 2020, doi:

  4. Abedi, Vida, et al. “Racial, Economic, and Health Inequality and COVID-19 Infection in the United States.” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, Springer International Publishing, May 2020, doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00833-4.

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  6. Abuelgasim, Eyad, et al. “COVID-19: Unique Public Health Issues Facing Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Communities.” Current Problems in Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 8, August 2020, p. 100621, doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2020.100621.

  7. Adeline, Stephanie, et al. “Coronavirus Maps: How Severe Is Your State’s Outbreak?” NPR,, October 2020.

  8. Ahmad, Khansa, et al. “Association of Poor Housing Conditions with COVID-19 Incidence and Mortality across US Counties.” PLoS One; San Francisco, vol. 15, no. 11, Public Library of Science, November 2020, p. e0241327, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0241327.

  9. Albro, Robert, and Eric Hershberg. Assessing Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Latino-Owned Businesses in the DC-Metro Region. June 2020, p. 14.

  10. Alexander, Apryl A., et al. “Sick and Shut In: Incarceration During a Public Health Crisis.” The Journal of Humanistic Psychology; Beverly Hills, vol. 60, no. 5, September 2020, pp. 647–56, doi:

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  12. Alobuia, Wilson M., et al. “Racial Disparities in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to COVID-19 in the USA.” Journal of Public Health, vol. 42, no. 3, Oxford University Press, August 2020, pp. 470–78, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa069.

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  14. Baquero, Barbara, et al. “Understanding and Addressing Latinx COVID-19 Disparities in Washington State.” Health Education & Behavior, October 2020.

  15. Barber, Sharrelle. “Death by Racism.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 8, Elsevier, August 2020, p. 903, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30567-3.

  16. Bassett, Mary T., and Sandro Galea. “Reparations as a Public Health Priority — A Strategy for Ending Black–White Health Disparities.” New England Journal of Medicine, Massachusetts Medical Society, October 2020, p. null, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2026170.

  17. Bassolas, Aleix, et al. “Disproportionate Incidence of COVID-19 in African Americans Correlates with Dynamic Segregation.” MedRxiv, Cornell University Library,, July 2020.

  18. Bastard, Paul, et al. “Autoantibodies against Type I IFNs in Patients with Life-Threatening COVID-19.” Science, vol. 370, no. 6515, American Association for the Advancement of Science, October 2020, doi:10.1126/science.abd4585.

  19. Belanger, Matthew J., et al. “Covid-19 and Disparities in Nutrition and Obesity.” New England Journal of Medicine, Massachusetts Medical Society, July 2020, p. null, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2021264.

  20. Bendix, Jeffrey. “African Americans with COVID-19 More Likely to Be Hospitalized than Whites.” Medical Economics, vol. 97, no. 11, July 2020, pp. 10–10.

  21. Bernheim, B. Douglas, et al. “The Effects of Large Group Meetings on the Spread of COVID-19: The Case of Trump Rallies.” Stanford University Department of Economics, October 2020, p. 15.

  22. Bhala, Neeraj, et al. “Sharpening the Global Focus on Ethnicity and Race in the Time of COVID-19.” The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10238, Elsevier Limited, May 2020, pp. 1673–76, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31102-8.

  23. Blackstock, Uché. “What the COVID-19 Pandemic Means for Black Americans.” Scientific American Blog Network, Springer Nature B.V., April 2020.

  24. Block, Ray, et al. “African American Adherence to COVID-19 Public Health Recommendations.” Health Literacy Research and Practice, vol. 4, no. 3, SLACK INCORPORATED, August 2020, pp. e166–e170, doi:10.3928/24748307-20200707-01.

  25. Bolsover, Gillian. “Black Lives Matter Discourse on US Social Media during COVID: Polarised Positions Enacted in a New Event.” SSRN, Cornell University Library,, September 2020.

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Audiovisual Materials

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  2. Benjamin, Ruha. Black Skin, White Masks: Racism, Vulnerability, and Refuting Black Pathology. April 2020.

  3. Blistein, Jon, and Jon Blistein. “Jaboukie Young-White Examines Why Gay Men Still Struggle to Donate Blood During COVID-19.” Rolling Stone, May 2020.

  4. Castrucci, Brian. COVID-19, Social Determinants Highlight Health Inequities — What Next? no. 14.

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  7. Davies, Dave, and Fresh Air. NPR Fresh Air: Will The Affordable Care Act Survive The Next Supreme Court Challenge?

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  9. Hajek, Danny. “In Homes Left Empty By COVID-19, This Georgia Woman Packs Up The Memories.” NPR Morning Edition,, May 2020.

  10. Hoffman, David, and Racecar Radio. The Big Shut-In.

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  17. Young, Robin, and Jerilyn LeBeau Church. COVID-19 Surges Among Native Americans In The Great Plains. WBUR, November 2020.

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  28. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Moving Upstream. July 2020.

  29. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Police Brutality and COVID-19. June 2020.

  30. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause. May 2020.

  31. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause & Considerations for Health Care Professionals. June 2020.

  32. American Medical Association, and Howard Bauchner. Who Gets Coronavirus Vaccine First? A Webinar with Dr. William H. Foege. October 2020.

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  40. Black Women Radicals. Sisters and Siblings in the Struggle: COVID-19 + Black + Asian-American Feminists Solidarities. May 2020.

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  42. Brookings Institute. The Impact of COVID-19 on Prisons. May 2020.

  43. ---. “Webinar: Valuing Black Lives and Property in America’s Black Cities.” Brookings Institute, April 2020.

  44. C-SPAN. Vice Presidential Debate between Mike Pence and Kamala Harris. October 2020.

  45. ---. First 2020 Presidential Debate between Donald Trump and Joe Biden. September 2020.

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  47. ---. Let’s Get Close - A California Department of Public Health COVID-19 PSA Targeting Young Latinx and Black People.

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  49. CBS News, et al. Longstanding Issues Put Native American Communities at High COVID-19 Risk. April 2020.

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  54. Columbia University African American and African Diaspora Studies Department. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Tramell Thompson on the Frontlines of NYC Subways". no. 02.

  55. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Keesha Middlemass on Incarceration and Re-Entry". no. 04.

  56. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Malo Hutson on the Built Environment". no. 01.

  57. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Matt Swain on Being an Essential Healthcare Worker During the Crisis". no. 05.

  58. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Saeeda Dunston on Providing Community Services During a Pandemic". no. 06.

  59. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Jelani Cobb on the Pandemic, History, and Our ‘American Spring’". no. 07.

  60. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Steven Thrasher on the Criminalization of Disease and Poverty". no. 08.

  61. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Alondra Nelson on Science, Technology, and Social Inequality". no. 09.

  62. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Dr. Oni Blackstock on NYC’s Health Response". no. 03.

  63. Dana Blanchard. “What a School Means: A Conversation with Eve L. Ewing.” Haymarket Books,, May 2020.

  64. Dear Culture. Hell No, We Won’t Go...Outside (Featuring Dr. Henry Louis Gates Jr.).

  65. Democracy Now! “COVID Exposes ‘Significant Racial Health Inequities’ as Black, Brown & Indigenous People Suffer Most.” Democracy Now!,, July 2020.

  66. DemocracyNow. “America’s Moment of Reckoning”: Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor & Cornel West on Uprising Against Racism. July 2020.

  67. ---. “A Systematic Issue of Disparity”: Black People in Louisiana Account for 70% of COVID-19 Deaths. April 2020.

  68. ---. COVID Racial Data Tracker: Ibram X. Kendi on How Better Data Reveals the True Toll of the Pandemic. May 2020.

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  70. Duke University. COVID-19 Media Briefing: The Pandemic’s Impact on Black Communities. July 2020.

  71. Faces of Diparity. COVID-19: Addressing Systemic Racism in the Midst of Pandemic - Infectious Diseases Society of America | Podcast on Spotify. no. July 18, 2020.

  72. Good Morning America. Expectant Moms Share Concerns over Giving Birth amid the Coronavirus. March 2020.

  73. Gotham Center for New York History. COVID University New York (CVNY).

  74. Guardian News. First Pfizer Covid Vaccine given to British Grandmother. December 2020.

  75. Harvard African Studies. Race to a Vaccine. June 2020.

  76. ---. “Africa & COVID-19 Webinar Series: Shared Experiences with COVID-19 in African and African American Communities.” Harvard University Center for African Studies,, May 2020.

  77. ---. Implications of COVID-19 on Food and Nutrition Security. June 2020.

  78. ---. Combating Racism and Xenophobia during COVID-19. May 2020.

  79. ---. Africa’s Healthcare Response to COVID-19. May 2020.

  80. Harvard Graduate School of Education. Education Now: Practicing Antiracism in Your School. August 2020.

  81. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. COVID-19 Brings Persistent Racial and Ethnic Disparities to Focus. April 2020.

  82. Harvard University Hutchins Center. Epidemics and Health Disparities in African American Communities. April 2020.

  83. ---. Lessons Not Learned: Smallpox and African Americans in the 1860s. April 2020.

  84. House Committee on Education and Labor. Inequities Exposed: How COVID-19 Widened Racial Inequities in Education, Health, and the Workforce. June 2020.

  85. Indianz. COVID-19 and American Racism: A Mohawk Perspective. April 2020.

  86. Info Continuum. FEMinCOVID Series-Judicaelle Irakoze. July 2020.

  87. International Institute for Environment and Development. Inequality in the Face of COVID-19: How Grassroots Communities Are Taking Action. July 2020.

  88. International Labour Organization. COVID-19 Cruelly Highlights Inequalities and Threatens to Deepen Them. March 2020.

  89. Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Best Life: COVID-19 Greatly Impacting the African American Community. July 2020.

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  91. Jennifer Abbasi (JAMA Medical News). Taking a Closer Look at COVID-19, Health Inequities, and Racism. June 2020.

  92. Johns Hopkins Medicine. COVID-19: Health Disparities. May 2020.

  93. KGW8 NBC Staff. Oregon Prison System Faces COVID Challenges during Wildfires | Kgw.Com. September 2020.

  94. Lean In. “How Covid-19 Is Impacting Women of Color.” Facebook Live,, May 2020.

  95. Liberation News. Massachusetts #FreeHer Car Protest Demands the Release of Incarcerated Women during COVID-19 - YouTube., April 2020.

  96. Mayo Clinic. African American COVID-19 Town Hall April 28, 2020. April 2020.

  97. Miriam Delaney Heard (NDRN). The Effects of COVID-19 on the African American Community - National Disability Rights Network. April 2020.

  98. MultcoPresents. Briefing on COVID-19 Disparities for Communities of Color. April 2020.

  99. Museum of the African Diaspora (MoAD). Still We Rise: Black Maternal Health During Covid-19. April 2020.

  100. NBC Chicago. ‘Do Not Invite Anyone Over’ to Your Home, Chicago’s Top Doctor Urges. October 2020.

  101. NBC News. ’A Living Hell’: Prisoners With COVID-19 Kept In Solitary Confinement | NBC News NOW. July 2020.

  102. ---. Graduate Together: America Honors The High School Class Of 2020. May 2020.

  103. National Association of Black Journalists. AMA-NABJ Virtual Town Hall: COVID-19 and the Black Community Town Hall. May 2020.

  104. National Minority Quality Forum. National Minority Quality Forum Webinar: Mental Health & COVID-19. April 2020.

  105. Natural Medicine Journal. Healthcare Disparity and COVID-19.

  106. PBS Frontline. COVID’s Hidden Toll. June 2020.

  107. PBS Newhour. How COVID-19 Is Highlighting Racial Disparities in Americans’ Health. July 2020.

  108. PBS News Hour. ‘We’Re Angry and We’Re Hurting.’ Why Communities of Color Suffer More from COVID-19. May 2020.

  109. PBS Newshour. WATCH LIVE: HHS Updates Public about Impact of COVID-19. July 2020.

  110. Pitt Diversity. COVID-19: The Pittsburgh Latinx Community Experience & Response. September 2020.

  111. Public Health - Seattle & King County. Media Briefing: Update on Impacts of COVID-19 by Race and Ethnicity in King County. May 2020.

  112. Public Health on Call. COVID-19’s Particular Threat to Native American Communities. no. 43.

  113. Radcliffe Institute Harvard University. When “Stay at Home” Isn’t Safe: Domestic Violence during COVID-19. June 2020.

  114. ---. Amplifying Community Voices: LGBTQ Health and Wellbeing during COVID-19. July 2020.

  115. Radcliffe Institute. “Is Now the Time to Build a Better System? K–12 Education and Systemic Racism in the Era of COVID-19.” Radcliffe Institute for Advanced Study at Harvard University,, July 2020.

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  117. RealSciLine. COVID-19: Health Disparities and Vulnerable Populations. May 2020.

  118. SHEA Podcasts. COVID-19: Racial Disparities, 7/09. no. June 9, 2020.

  119. South Central Rooted. 2:COVID-19 and the Drivers of Disparity. no. 2.

  120. TIME. Watch: Doctors Explain Why COVID-19 May Be More Dangerous for African Americans. May 2020.

  121. The Berkeley Forum. Dr. Anthony Fauci Participates in COVID-19 Fireside Chat, Touches on Systemic Racial Injustice. October 2020.

  122. The Charlotte Observer, and er. NC Begins Releasing Some Inmates Early to Fight the Spread of Coronavirus. April 2020.

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  126. The Fletcher School at Tufts University. Intersectionality & COVID-19: A Discussion with Fletcher Faculty and Students. April 2020.

  127. The Frontline Dispatch. Race, Police & the Pandemic. no. 30.

  128. The Intercept. Covid-19 Transforming Culture and Media in The United States - System Update with Murtaza Hussain. no. 14.

  129. The Journal American Medical Association Network. Coronavirus and Health Inequities. June 2020.

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  132. The New Yorker, and David Remnick. The Injustice of COVID-19 with Keeanga-Yamahtta Taylor.

  133. Transgender Law Center. The Black Trans Femmes on the Frontlines of the Crisis. April 2020.

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  135. Transnational Institute. Webinar Recording: COVID-19 and the Global Fight against Mass Incarceration. June 2020.

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Digital Materials

  1. Adams, Vincanne. “Disasters and Capitalism\Ldots and COVID-19.” Somatosphere, March 2020.

  2. Bermant, Laia Soto, and Nikolai Ssorin-Chaikov. “Social Anthropology: Vol 28, No 2.” Social Anthropology,, May 2020.

  3. Chang, Jason Oliver. “Yellow Peril Teach-In Resources.” Google Docs,, August 2020.

  4. Connell, Raewyn. “COVID-19/Sociology - Raewyn Connell, 2020.” Journal of Sociology,, July 2020.

  5. Curley, Andrew. “Contested Water Settlements Inflamed the Navajo Nation’s Health Crisis.” High Country News,, August 2020.

  6. D’Ignazio, Catherine, and Lauren Klein. “Seven Intersectional Feminist Principles for Equitable and Actionable COVID-19 Data - Catherine D’Ignazio, Lauren F. Klein, 2020.” Big Data & Society,, July 2020.

  7. DeMott, Sarah, and Tracie Jones. Research Guides: Black America and COVID-19., 2020.

  8. Glass, Eric. “Research Guides: Health Data Resources.” Columbia University Libraries,, 2020.

  9. Hebert, Pato, and Alexandra Juhasz. “You’Re Still Sick.” BOMB Magazine,, July 2020.

  10. Laterza, Vito, and Louis Philippe Romer. “COVID-19, the Freedom to Die, and the Necropolitics of the Market.” Somatosphere, May 2020.

  11. Lianke, Yan. “Yan Lianke: What Happens After Coronavirus?” Literary Hub, March 2020.

  12. Lima, Lazaro. “Essential Work, Disposable Lives: Latino Invisibility, Black Lives, and Coalition Politics in the Age of Covid-19.” Roosevelt House Public Policy Institute at Hunter College, July 2020.

  13. Manley, Gabriela. “Introducing the Pandemic Diaries.” American Ethnological Society,, March 2020.

  14. Merrick, John. “Mike Davis Tried to Warn Us About a Virus-Induced Apocalypse.” Jacobin Magazine,, July 2020.

  15. Murray, Heather. “Fearing a Fear of Germs.” Perspectives on History (American Historical Association),, October 2020.

  16. Preciado, Paul B. “Learning from the Virus.” Art Forum,, June 2020.

  17. Roberts, Samuel K. “Podcast Series 2020: ‘Black Lives: In the Era of COVID 19.’” Columbia University African American and African DIaspora Studies Department,, June 2020.

  18. Roberts, Samuel Kelton. “Bearing Witness: The Covid-19 and Inequality History Documentation Project.” Bearing Witness,

  19. Rodriguez, Robert M. “Tackling Another COVID-19 Pandemic Disparity - Distance from Major Academic Medical Centers Encumbers Emergency and Critical Care Physician Surge Capacity.” Academic Emergency Medicine, Wiley, September 2020, doi:10.1111/acem.14123.

  20. Sanderson, Matthew R. “Here We Are: Agriculture and Human Values in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.” Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 37, no. 3, September 2020, pp. 515–16, doi:10.1007/s10460-020-10040-w.

  21. Wald, Priscilla. Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative. Duke University Press, 2008, doi:10.1215/9780822390572.

  22. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. “Color-Blind Racism in Pandemic Times.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, SAGE Publications Inc, July 2020, p. 2332649220941024, doi:10.1177/2332649220941024.

  23. Brown University IT Service Center. Using Zoom for Remote Teaching., September 2020.

  24. Department of Modern Languages & Literatures, University of Miami. “Digital Narratives of Covid-19.” Digital Narratives of Covid-19, August 2020.

  25. Embrace Race. “The Racial Impacts of COVID-19: Regularly Updated News Articles.” Embrace Race,, 2020.

  26. The Marxist Feminist Collective. “On Social Reproduction and the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Spectre Journal,, April 2020.