Bearing Witness
The Covid-19 & Inequality History Documentation Project

Bibliography


  1. “Historic Racism to Blame for Higher Covid-19 Risk to Minorities: UK Report.” The Times of India, June 2020, https://timesofindia.indiatimes.com/us.

  2. “Johns Hopkins Report: Covid-19 by the Numbers.” State of Black America, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  3. “How Coronavirus and Race Collide in the U.S.” Bloomberg.com, August 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/.

  4. “Early Coronavirus Drug Trials Tested Vaccines Mostly on White People; next Phase Aims for Diversity.” CNBC, July 2020, https://www.cnbc.com/.

  5. “Woes Compounded: Covid-19 Exposes America’s Racial Health Gap.” The Economist, April 2020, https://www.economist.com/.

  6. “COVID-19 May Not Discriminate Based on Race-but U.S. Health Care Does.” PBS News Hour, April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/.

  7. “Covid-19 Cases Increasing Dramatically in Prisons.” Equal Justice Initiative, June 2020, https://eji.org/news/.

  8. “Data Analyzes COVID-19 Impact on Jail Populations.” CorrectionsOne, June 2020, https://www.correctionsone.com/.

  9. “Dear Right-Wing Protesters: Your ’Liberty’ to Swing Your Fist Ends Just Where My Nose Begins.” Daily Kos, April 2020, https://www.dailykos.com/.

  10. Adhikari, Samrachana, and Olugbenga Ogedegbe. “Racial Disparities in COVID-19–Related Deaths Exist Beyond Income Differences in Large U.S. Cities.” NYU Langone News, July 2020, https://nyulangone.org/.

  11. Albert, Victoria. “People of Color Are Exempt from Oregon County’s Mandatory Mask Order.” CBS News, June 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  12. Aleem, Zeeshan. “New CDC Data Shows Covid-19 Is Affecting African Americans at Exceptionally High Rates.” Vox, April 2020, https://www.vox.com/.

  13. Alexander, Elizabeth. “The Trayvon Generation.” The New Yorker, June 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  14. Alexander, Michelle. “Let Our People Go.” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  15. Alleyne, Kenneth R. “How Covid-19 Is a Perfect Storm for Black Americans.” The Washington Post, April 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  16. Anderson, Diane. “Black Health Advocates Watch For Covid-19 Funding.” Precinct Reporter Group News, May 2020, https://www.precinctreporter.com/.

  17. Anderson, Elijah, et al. “Yale Experts on the Parallel Crises of COVID-19 and Systemic Racism.” Office of the President, July 2020, https://president.yale.edu/.

  18. Aspholm, Roberto. “To Talk About Racial Disparity and COVID-19, We Need to Talk About Class.” Jacobin Magazine, August 2020, https://jacobinmag.com/.

  19. Aubrey, Allison. “Who’s Hit Hardest By COVID-19? Why Obesity, Stress And Race All Matter.” NPR, April 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  20. Awake, Mik. “The Comorbidities of the National Football League.” The New Yorker, July 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  21. Azar, Kristen M. J., et al. “Disparities In Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients In A Large Health Care System In California.” Health Affairs, May 2020, p. 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598.

  22. Bahadur, Nina. “Is COVID-19 Making Black Birth More Complicated?” CBS News, August 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  23. Baranauckas, Carla, and Samuel Stebbins. Coronavirus: How Minorities Are Disproportionately Affected, by State. July 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  24. Barnes, Jenae. “A Black Participant in Moderna’s COVID-19 Vaccination Trial: Trust the Vaccine.” ABC News, August 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/.

  25. Barron-Lopez, Laura, and Alice Miranda Ollstein. “Trump’s Fragmented Pandemic Response May Undermine Push to Address Racial Disparities.” POLITICO, July 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  26. Barron-Lopez, Laura, et al. “‘People Can’t Ignore It Anymore’: Across the Country, Minorities Hit Hardest by Pandemic.” POLITICO, July 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  27. Basu, Rekha. “Is COVID-19 Driving New Racism, or Are Old Divisions Being Exploited from the Top down?” Des Moines Register, May 2020, https://www.desmoinesregister.com/.

  28. Baveja, Sahiba. “Penn Study Shows Disproportionately High COVID-19 Infection Rates in Black, Hispanic Women.” The Daily Pennsylvanian, August 2020, https://www.thedp.com/.

  29. Begley, Sharon. “Who’s Dying of COVID-19 May Be Determined Just as Much by Race as by Age.” KQED, June 2020, https://www.kqed.org/.

  30. Bellware, Kim. “Prisoners and Guards Agree about Federal Coronavirus Response: ‘We Do Not Feel Safe.’” Washington Post, August 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  31. Benton, Ben. “Infectious Diseases Society Makes Recommendations for Prison, Jail COVID-19 Policies.” Chattanooga Times Free Press, May 2020, https://www.timesfreepress.com/.

  32. Berg, Sara. “5 Steps Physicians Can Take to Prioritize Black Patients’ Well-Being.” American Medical Association, July 2020, https://www.ama-assn.org/.

  33. Bernard, Emily. “The Purpose of a House.” The New Yorker, June 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  34. Berry, Deborah Barfield. “’This Report Is ... a Joke’: House Democrats Blast CDC over Racial Disparity Data amid Coronavirus.” USA Today, May 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  35. Bethea, Charles. “What the Coronavirus Is Doing to Rural Georgia.” The New Yorker, April 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  36. ---. “Georgia Betrays Its Voters Again.” The New Yorker, June 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  37. Birrell, Sara. “‘It’s a Crisis of Legitimacy for the Capitalist System Itself.’” Briarpatch Magazine, April 2020, https://briarpatchmagazine.com/.

  38. Blair, Nolan. “Upstate Series about COVID-19’s Impact on African American Community Continues.” WYFF, May 2020, https://www.wyff4.com/.

  39. Blow, Charles M. “Focus the Covid-19 Fight in Black Cities.” New York Times (Online), April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  40. Bouka, Aimée-Angélique, et al. “Canada’s COVID-19 Blind Spots on Race, Immigration and Labour.” Policy Options Politiques, May 2020, https://policyoptions.irpp.org/.

  41. Bowden, John. “Coronavirus Patients in Areas with High Air Pollution More Likely to Die: Research.” The Hill, April 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  42. Bowerman, Ashley. “Groups Push for More COVID-19 Testing in Underserved Communities.” Https://Www.wsfa.com, July 2020, https://www.wsfa.com/.

  43. Brooks, Cornell William, and Marcella Alsan. “The Crisis of Mistrust and COVID-19: Race and Re-Imagining Tracing and Vaccination.” USA TODAY, September 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  44. Buchanan, Larry, et al. “A Month of Coronavirus in New York City: See the Hardest-Hit Areas.” The New York Times, April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  45. Burling, Stacey. “Medical Workers, Nursing Homes Top List of Who Should Get COVID-19 Vaccine First, Says Academy of Medicine Advisory Group.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, September 2020, https://www.inquirer.com/.

  46. Burruto, Ivy. “Commentary: Parallels between HIV, COVID-19 Reflect Persisting Health and Social Inequalities.” University of Rochester School of Nursing, July 2020, https://www.son.rochester.edu/.

  47. CNN, Denise Royal and Phil Gast. “On This Pricey and Private Island near Miami Beach, Everyone Gets a Coronavirus Test.” CNN, April 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  48. CNN, Rob Picheta. “Black People Four Times More Likely to Die from Covid-19 than White People, New UK Data Shows.” CNN, May 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  49. Cahan, Eli. “Ethical or Exploitative—Should Prisoners Participate in COVID-19 Vaccine Trials?” Science \Textbar AAAS, September 2020, https://www.sciencemag.org/.

  50. Carlson, Carole. “New Indiana Report Eyes COVID-19 Health Disparities among Minorities.” Chicagotribune.com, July 2020, https://www.chicagotribune.com/.

  51. Carpenter, Zoe. “Will Covid-19 Be a Turning Point in the Fight Against Racial Disparities in Health Care?” The Nation, June 2020, https://www.thenation.com/.

  52. Cerullo, Megan. “Moderna Vaccine Trial Lacks Black, Latinx and Indigenous Participants.” CBS News, August 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  53. Cha, Ariana Eunjung. “‘We Don’t Get Justice’: When a Black Girl’s Death from Covid-19 Feels like a Collision of Two Crises.” Washington Post, June 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  54. Chappell, Bill. “Protesting Racism Versus Risking COVID-19: ’I Wouldn’t Weigh These Crises Separately.’” NPR, June 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  55. Chavez, Aliyah. “Two Pueblos Have Some of the Highest Infection Rates in US.” IndianCountryToday.com, April 2020, https://indiancountrytoday.com/.

  56. Chavis Jr., Benjamin. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” The Philadelphia Tribune, September 2020, https://www.phillytrib.com/.

  57. Chavis, Dr. Benjamin F. “Black Americans and COVID-19 Clinical Trials.” Amsterdam News, September 2020, http://amsterdamnews.com/.

  58. Chotiner, Isaac. “The Multiple Unfolding Crises for African-Americans in Minneapolis.” The New Yorker, May 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  59. ---. “How Racism Is Shaping the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker, May 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  60. ---. “Racism, Contagion, and the Dangers We Pose to One Another.” The New Yorker, September 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  61. Christensen, Jen. “States Engaged in ’Gross Negligence’ in Covid-19 Response in Jails and Prisons, New Report Finds.” CNN, June 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  62. Cobb, Jelani. “How the Coronavirus Pandemic Intensifies the Fight Over Voting Rights.” The New Yorker, April 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  63. ---. “Minneapolis, the Coronavirus, and Trump’s Failure to See a Crisis Coming.” The New Yorker, May 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  64. Cohen, Elizabeth. “Moderna Increases Minority Numbers in Its Vaccine Trial, but Still Not Meeting Fauci’s Goal.” CNN, August 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  65. Cohen, Elizabeth, and Dana Vigue. “Covid-19 Vaccine Trials Have Been Slow to Recruit Black and Latino People – and That Could Delay a Vaccine.” CNN, August 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  66. Coleman, Ken. “’Strike for Black Lives’: Nursing Home Workers Rally amid COVID-19 Crisis ⋆ Michigan Advance.” Michigan Advance, July 2020, https://www.michiganadvance.com/.

  67. Colvin, Eplunus. “Prison System Shows Signs of COVID-19 Recovery.” Times Record, June 2020, https://www.swtimes.com/.

  68. Conger, Kate, et al. “Native Americans Feel Devastated by the Virus Yet Overlooked in the Data.” The New York Times, July 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  69. Cooney, Elizabeth. “Behind Covid-19’s Disparities: Immigration Status, Housing, and Work.” STAT, August 2020, https://www.statnews.com/.

  70. Costa, Pedro Nicolaci da. “The Covid-19 Crisis Has Wiped Out Nearly Half Of Black Small Businesses.” Forbes, August 2020, https://www.forbes.com/.

  71. Craven, Julia. “How Racial Health Disparities Will Play Out in the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Slate Magazine, March 2020, https://slate.com/.

  72. Davis, Kelly. “Coronavirus In Jails And Prisons.” The Appeal, August 2020, https://theappeal.org/.

  73. Dolan, Laura, and Jason Carroll. “Black Americans, Hit Hardest by the Pandemic, Feel They’Re Hurt by Both the Virus and Inequities Tied to Race.” CNN, September 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  74. Donloe, Darlene. “Black Women’s Group Holds Prayer Rally for COVID-19.” Los Angeles Wave Newspapers, May 2020, http://wavenewspapers.com/.

  75. Ducharme, Jamie. “Even in Wealthy Areas, People of Color Are More Likely to Get and Die from Coronavirus, Study Says.” Time, July 2020, https://time.com/.

  76. Durkin, Erin. “NYC’s Poorest Neighborhoods Have Highest Death Rates from Coronavirus.” Politico, May 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  77. Dwamena, Anakwa. “How Jair Bolsonaro and the Coronavirus Put Brazil’s Systemic Racism on Display.” The New Yorker, July 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  78. D’Onofrio, Michael. “Black Docs: City Has Shortchanged the African-American Community.” The Philadelphia Tribune, May 2020, https://www.phillytrib.com/.

  79. Eligon, John, et al. “Black Americans Face Alarming Rates of Coronavirus Infection in Some States.” The New York Times, April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  80. Enonchong, Rebecca, and Felix Marquardt. “Will Racism Color How We Remember COVID-19? \Textbar Opinion.” Newsweek, June 2020, https://www.newsweek.com/.

  81. Eschner, Kat. “COVID-19 Is Exposing the Food Deserts around Native American Reservations.” Popular Science, July 2020, https://www.popsci.com/.

  82. Evich, Helena. Stark Racial Disparities Emerge as Families Struggle to Get Enough Food. July 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  83. Fang, Marina. “Congressional Democrats Tell DOJ To Do More To Address COVID-19 Hate Crimes.” The Huffington Post, May 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/.

  84. ---. “Black And Asian Americans Have Experienced More Racism Due To COVID-19: New Survey.” The Huffington Post, July 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/.

  85. ---. “House Passes Legislation Condemning Wave Of Anti-Asian Racism.” The Huffington Post, September 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/.

  86. Fields, Robert. “COVID-19 Shines Light on How Healthcare Is Leaving At-Risk Populations Behind.” Medical Economics, September 2020, https://www.medicaleconomics.com/.

  87. Firth, Shannon. “Racism Drives Inequities in COVID-19, House Panel Told.” MedPage Today, June 2020, https://www.medpagetoday.com/.

  88. Flynn, Meagan. “‘He Gave His Life for That Hospital’: A Doctor Put off Retirement to Fight Covid-19, Only to Die of the Virus.” Washington Post, May 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  89. Ford, Steve. “BAME Staff Found to Be Scared to Speak out against Inequality.” Nursing Times, June 2020, https://www.nursingtimes.net/.

  90. Francis, Dania, and Christian E. Weller. “The Black-White Wealth Gap Will Widen Educational Disparities During the Coronavirus Pandemic.” Center for American Progress, August 2020, https://www.americanprogress.org/.

  91. Frazin, Rachel. “Experts See Worrisome Link between Coronavirus, Pollution.” The Hill, April 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  92. Fritz, Anita. “Senators, Public Health Officials Discuss Disparities, Inequities.” Greenfield Recorder, June 2020, https://www.recorder.com/.

  93. Frosch, Dan. “Covid-19 Testing Is Hampered by Shortages of Critical Ingredient.” Wall Street Journal, September 2020, https://www.wsj.com/.

  94. Fuller, Thomas. “Coronavirus Limits California’s Efforts to Fight Fires With Prison Labor.” The New York Times, August 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  95. Furlow, Bryant. “Albuquerque Hospital’s Secret Policy Separated Native American Newborns From Their Mothers.” New Mexico In Depth, June 2020, http://nmindepth.com/.

  96. Gadermann, Anne, et al. “Mental Health Impact of Coronavirus Pandemic Hits Marginalized Groups Hardest.” The Conversation, July 2020, http://theconversation.com/.

  97. Gallo, Kathryn. “Sen. Tina Smith Addresses Native American Communities Negatively Impacted by COVID-19.” KVRR Local News, June 2020, https://www.kvrr.com/.

  98. Galvin, Molly. “Historically Black Colleges and Universities Take Center Stage as the Nation Responds to COVID-19 and Systemic Racism \Textbar National Academies.” The National Academies Sciences, Engineering, Medicine, July 2020, https://www.nationalacademies.org/.

  99. Gardner, Amy, et al. “Trump Escalates Campaign to Discredit Mail Balloting, Threatening Federal Funds to Two Battleground States.” The Washington Post, May 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  100. Gebeloff, David, et al. “The Striking Racial Divide in How Covid-19 Has Hit Nursing Homes.” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  101. Godoy, Maria. “Black Medicare Patients With COVID-19 Nearly 4 Times As Likely To End Up In Hospital.” NPR.org, June 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  102. Godoy, Maria, and Daniel Wood. “What Do Coronavirus Racial Disparities Look Like State By State?” NPR, May 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  103. Goldbaum, Christina. “41 Transit Workers Dead: Crisis Takes Staggering Toll on Subways.” The New York Times, April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  104. Gonnerman, Jennifer. “A Transit Worker’s Survival Story. Driving a New York City Bus during a Pandemic and an Uprising.” The New Yorker, August 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  105. ---. “The Purgatory of Parole Incarcerations During the Coronavirus Crisis.” The New Yorker, April 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  106. Goodman, Amy. “Deaths of Inequality: AOC on Black and Latinx Communities at Epicenter of Epicenter of the Pandemic.” Democracy Now!, April 2020, https://www.democracynow.org/.

  107. Gopalakrishna, Pratibha. “Anthony Fauci on Lessons Learned so Far in the Covid-19 Pandemic.” STAT, September 2020, https://www.statnews.com/.

  108. Graham, Megan. “World Health Organization Reports New Coronavirus Cases Reach All-Time High.” CNBC, July 2020, https://www.cnbc.com/.

  109. Gravlee, Clarence. “Racism, Not Genetics, Explains Why Black Americans Are Dying Of COVID-19.” Scientific American, June 2020, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/.

  110. Gray, Madison J. “NYC Black And Latino Communities Showing Higher Death Rates Than Affluent Neighborhoods.” BET, May 2020, https://www.bet.com/.

  111. Green, Jeff, and Jackie Gu. “The Covid Death Rate in Majority-Black Counties Is Getting Worse.” Bloomberg.com, July 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/.

  112. Greenhouse, Steven. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Has Intensified Systemic Economic Racism Against Black Americans.” The New Yorker, July 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/news/news-desk/the-pandemic-has-intensified-systemic-economic-racism-against-black-americans.

  113. Greig, Jonathan. “Kamala Harris And Cory Booker Call On FBI To Address Fear Over Cops’ Response To Black People Wearing Face Masks.” Blavity News, April 2020, https://blavity.com/.

  114. Grey, Heather. “More Evidence That Black Americans Face High Risks from COVID-19.” Healthline, August 2020, https://www.healthline.com/.

  115. Guida, Victoria. “Fed Study: Covid-19 Overwhelmingly Strikes Counties with Most Black Businesses.” POLITICO, August 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  116. Guo, Eileen. “As Covid-19 Cases in Prisons Climb, Data on Race Remain Largely Obscured.” STAT, August 2020, https://www.statnews.com/.

  117. Harrison, David. “Public Transit Use Is Associated With Higher Coronavirus Death Rates, Researchers Find.” The Wall Street Journal, June 2020, https://www.wsj.com/.

  118. Harrison, Dr. Dave. “As Progress Continues on Coronavirus Vaccine, Experts Debate Who Should Be 1st to Receive It.” ABC News, September 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/.

  119. Hart, Ariel. “COVID-19 Swamps Another Rural Georgia County.” Atlanta Journal Constitution, May 2020, https://www.ajc.com/.

  120. Hart, Marion. “UNICEF USA BrandVoice: Why COVID-19 Is Hitting Black And Hispanic Children Especially Hard.” Forbes, August 2020, https://www.forbes.com/.

  121. Hawkins, B. Denise. “New Data Tracking System Highlights Race Disparities Among COVID-19-Related Deaths.” Diverse Education, July 2020, https://diverseeducation.com/.

  122. Hawkins, Beth. New Research Predicts Steep COVID Learning Losses Will Widen Already Dramatic Achievement Gaps Within Classrooms. June 2020, https://www.the74million.org/.

  123. Healy, Jack, and Dionne Searcey. “Two Crises Convulse a Nation: A Pandemic and Police Violence.” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  124. Hilgers, Lauren. “How Texas Republicans Politicized the Coronavirus Pandemic.” The New Yorker, July 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  125. Hollis, Adrienne. “Researchers Find Deadliest Aspect of COVID-19 for People of Color: Racism.” Union of Concerned Scientists, July 2020, https://blog.ucsusa.org/.

  126. Holpuch, Amanda. “Corona in Corona: Deadly Toll in a New York Neighborhood Tells a Story of Race, Poverty and Inequality.” The Guardian, June 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us.

  127. Holt, Lester, and Rehema Ellis. “Oprah Winfrey Warns Black Community of COVID-19 Impact.” NBC Nightly News, April 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/.

  128. Howard, Jacqueline. “Racism Contributes to Covid-19’s Impact on the Black Community, Fauci Says.” CNN, June 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  129. Howard, Jacqueline, and Kristen Rogers. “US Racial Inequality May Be Just as Deadly as Covid-19.” CNN Health, August 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  130. Hughes, Trevor. “Segregated Parks Linked to Higher COVID-19 Deaths for Black and Latino Americans.” USA TODAY, August 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  131. Hymes, Clare. “Federal Prisons Reach Grim Milestone: 100 Inmate Deaths from Coronavirus.” CBS News, July 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  132. Jackson, Angie. “COVID-19 Adds More Challenges to Reentry after Prison: ’It’s Really a Whole New Game.’” Detroit Free Press, September 2020, https://www.freep.com/.

  133. Johnson, Kaley. “Women Say They Face COVID, Lack of Food, Abuse at ‘House of Horror’ Fort Worth Prison.” Fort Worth Star-Telegram, August 2020, https://www.star-telegram.com/.

  134. Johnson-Hargrove, Desha. “Coronavirus Killed My Husband. Stay Home to Save Others.” Time, April 2020, https://time.com/.

  135. Jones, Esyllt. “Epidemics and Resistance: Maintaining Public Trust in a Time of Unrest.” The Hill Times, June 2020, https://www.hilltimes.com/.

  136. Jones, Van. No One Was Sentenced to Die by a Virus: A SAFER Plan for COVID-19 in US Jails & Prisons. 2020, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  137. Jordan, Miriam, and Richard A. Oppel Jr. “For Latinos and Covid-19, Doctors Are Seeing an ‘Alarming’ Disparity.” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  138. KWCH. “Kansas Sees Nation’s Largest Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Deaths.” KWCH News, May 2020, https://www.kwch.com/.

  139. Kaplan, Elise, and Theresa Davis. “’Huge Disparity’ in COVID-19 Death Rates for Native Americans in NM.” Albuquerque Journal, May 2020, https://www.abqjournal.com/.

  140. Kaplan, Karen. “CDC Data Reveal Another Racial Disparity for COVID-19 Victims — Age at Death.” Los Angeles Times, July 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  141. Karaca-Mandic, Pinar, and Soumya Sen. “COVID-19 Hospitalizations Analysis Shows Disparities across Racial and Ethnic Groups.” ScienceDaily, August 2020, https://www.sciencedaily.com/.

  142. Kaur, Harmeet. “The Coronavirus Pandemic Is Hitting Black and Brown Americans Especially Hard on All Fronts.” CNN, May 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  143. Kavi, Aishvarya. “Journalist Bob Woodward Releases New Book, Rage, Detailing the Moments President Donald Trump Received News about COVID-19 in January, and His Consequent Downplaying of the Virus to the American Public from February Onward.” The New York Times, September 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  144. Kelley, Alexandra. “More than 1,000 CDC Employees Sign Letter Decrying ’Toxic Culture’ of Racism in Agency.” TheHill, July 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  145. Kendi, Ibram X. “Stop Blaming Black People for Dying of the Coronavirus.” The Atlantic, April 2020, https://www.theatlantic.com/.

  146. Kiersz, Andy, and Aylin Woodward. “An Alarmingly Disproportionate Number of Black Americans Are Dying from the Coronavirus, More and More Research Shows.” Business Insider, May 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/.

  147. Kimmell, Ken. “Perpetrators of Vile, Racist Acts Must Be Brought to Justice.” Union of Concerned Scientists, May 2020, https://www.ucsusa.org/.

  148. King, Noel. “Why COVID-19 Disproportionately Impacts Latino Communities.” NPR, July 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  149. Klasing, Amanda. “US Structural Racism Shapes Access to Water During Covid-19.” Human Rights Watch, July 2020, https://www.hrw.org/.

  150. Konetzka, R. Tamara. “Nursing Homes Serving Black and Latino Residents Need More Support \Textbar Expert Opinion.” The Philadelphia Inquirer, June 2020, https://www.inquirer.com/.

  151. Krishnamurthy, Madhu. “Dramatic Rise in Suicides among Cook County’s Black Population.” Daily Herald, August 2020, https://www.dailyherald.com/.

  152. Lakhani, Nina, and Jonathan Watts. “Environmental Justice Means Racial Justice, Say Activists.” The Guardian, June 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/us.

  153. Laughland, Oliver. ‘“It”s Bad When You Have to Drag Yourself to the Hospital”: US South Struggles against Covid-19’. The Guardian, August 2020, https://www.theguardian.com/.

  154. Lavietes, Matthew, et al. “’A Pandemic in a Pandemic’: Coronavirus Deepens Racial Gaps in America.” Reuters, August 2020, https://www.reuters.com/.

  155. Lavoie, Denise, et al. “US Prison Populations down 8% amid Coronavirus Outbreak.” The Seattle Times, July 2020, https://www.seattletimes.com/.

  156. Layne, Nathan, and Gabriella Borter. “Seven U.S. States Post Record COVID Cases, Curfew Ordered in Miami.” US News & World Report, July 2020, https://www.usnews.com/.

  157. Leber, Rebecca. “The Connections Between Race, Pollution, and Covid-19.” Undark Magazine, June 2020, https://undark.org/.

  158. Lee, Ethan. Harvard Researchers Create First County-Level Nationwide COVID-19 Policy Dataset \Textbar News \Textbar The Harvard Crimson. July 2020, https://www.thecrimson.com/.

  159. Leibenluft, Jacob, and Ben Olinsky. “Protecting Worker Safety and Economic Security During the COVID-19 Reopening.” Center for American Progress, June 2020, https://www.americanprogress.org/.

  160. Leonard, Kimberley. “Surgeon General: Racism to Blame for Coronavirus Toll on People of Color.” Business Insider, June 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/.

  161. Leonard, Kimberly. “The Coronavirus Is Devastating Communities of Color. The Trump Administration’s Top Doctor Blames ’Structural Racism’ and Shares His Plans to Take Action.” Business Insider, June 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/.

  162. Lerner, Louise. “Study: Nearly 16% of Illinois COVID-19 Cases Linked to Spread from Chicago Jail.” University of Chicago News, June 2020, https://news.uchicago.edu/.

  163. Lin II, Rong-Gong, et al. “California Latino, Black Residents Hit Even Harder by Coronavirus as White People See Less Danger.” Los Angeles Times, June 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  164. Lindstrom, Rebecca. “Breaking down Georgia’s COVID-19 Death Statistics.” 11Alive, May 2020, https://www.11alive.com/.

  165. Lopez, Oscar. “Economic Impact of Coronavirus Zeroes in on Black LGBT+ Americans.” Reuters, August 2020, https://www.reuters.com/.

  166. López, Canela. “Oprah Winfrey Says the Coronavirus Is ’Ravaging’ the Black Community.” Insider, April 2020, https://www.insider.com/.

  167. Malone, Clare. “New York’s Inequalities Are Fueling COVID-19.” FiveThirtyEight, April 2020, https://fivethirtyeight.com/.

  168. Mangat, Palak. “Feds Should Use Anti-Racism Strategy to Tackle Anti-Asian Sentiments in Wake of Pandemic, Say Experts.” The Hill Times, May 2020, https://www.hilltimes.com/.

  169. Mark, Michelle. “More US Prisoners Have Died of COVID-19 in Recent Months than Have Been Executed in the Last 20 Years.” Insider, August 2020, https://www.insider.com/.

  170. Martin, Michael. “The Coronavirus’ Outsized Impact On California’s Latino Communities.” NPR.org, July 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  171. Masoud, Zahra. “Health Inequity in the Hispanic/Latinx Population During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Infectious Disease Advisor, September 2020, https://www.infectiousdiseaseadvisor.com/.

  172. May 4, Sarah LaFave / Published. “How School Closures for COVID-19 Amplify Inequality.” The Hub, May 2020, https://hub.jhu.edu/.

  173. Mays, Jeffery C., and Andy Newman. “Virus Is Twice as Deadly for Black and Latino People Than Whites in N.Y.C.” The New York Times, April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  174. McCullom, Rod. “Artificial Intelligence, Health Disparities, and Covid-19.” Undark Magazine, July 2020, https://undark.org/.

  175. McFarling, Usha Lee. Dermatology Faces a Reckoning: Lack of Darker Skin in Textbooks and Journals Harms Care for Patients of Color. July 2020, https://www.statnews.com/.

  176. McMinn, Sean, et al. “In Large Texas Cities, Access To Coronavirus Testing May Depend On Where You Live.” NPR, May 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  177. McVane, Ben. “Opinion \Textbar I’m a Doctor at the ‘Epicenter of the Epicenter.’” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  178. Michaels, Samantha, and Samantha Michaels. “Breonna Taylor Is One of a Shocking Number of Black People to See Armed Police Barge Into Their Homes.” Mother Jones, May 2020, https://www.motherjones.com/.

  179. Miller, Leanne, and Meg Tirrell. “Moderna Slows Coronavirus Vaccine Trial Enrollment to Ensure Minority Representation, CEO Says.” CNBC, September 2020, https://www.cnbc.com/.

  180. Mineo, Liz. “Documenting the Lives of Black Americans in the Age of COVID.” Harvard Gazette, September 2020, https://news.harvard.edu/.

  181. Montgomery, Louise. “Covid-19 and Environmental Racism.” The Ecologist, May 2020, https://theecologist.org/.

  182. Morrison, Aaron. “Democratic Lawmakers Call for Racial Data in Virus Testing.” Assoicated Press, March 2020, https://apnews.com/.

  183. Mullings, Morgan. “Social Factors Contribute to COVID-19 Cases among Blacks and Latinos.” The Bay State Banner, September 2020, https://www.baystatebanner.com/.

  184. Murphy, Timothy. United We Stand: Building a Better Future for All. 2020, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  185. NAACP. “New Poll Reveals COVID-19’s Impacts on African American Communities.” NAACP, May 2020, https://www.naacp.org/.

  186. Neel, Joe. “NPR Poll: Financial Pain From Coronavirus Pandemic ’Much, Much Worse’ Than Expected.” NPR.org, September 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  187. Neff, Joseph, and Dan Kane. “Freed From Prison, Dead from COVID-19, Not Even Counted.” The Marshall Project, July 2020, https://www.themarshallproject.org/.

  188. Neuman, Scott. “COVID-19 Death Rate For Black Americans Twice That For Whites, New Report Says.” NPR.org, August 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  189. Neumann, Sean. “Senators Introduce ’Much Needed’ Bill to Address Coronavirus’ Racial Disparities.” PEOPLE.com, July 2020, https://people.com/.

  190. News, C. BS. The Racial Impact of COVID-19. CBSN, April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/.

  191. Newton, Creede. “COVID-19 Prison Problem as Cases Soar at California’s San Quentin.” Aljazeera, June 2020, https://www.aljazeera.com/.

  192. Nilsen, Ella. “Exclusive: Senate Democrats Press AG Barr for Answers about Poll Closures on Native American Reservations.” Vox, July 2020, https://www.vox.com/.

  193. O’Reilly, Kevin. “FDA’s SARS-CoV-2 Vaccine Review Needs Major Dose of Transparency.” American Medical Association, August 2020, https://www.ama-assn.org/.

  194. ---. “7 Ways Congress Can Cut COVID-19’s Health Inequities.” American Medical Association, July 2020, https://www.ama-assn.org/.

  195. Ochsner, Nick. “Prisoners Continued Being Sent to Laundry Job after Co-Workers Tested Positive for COVID-19.” Https://Www.wbtv.com, August 2020, https://www.wbtv.com/.

  196. Office, H. HS Press. “HHS Announces New Laboratory Data Reporting Guidance for COVID-19 Testing.” U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, June 2020, https://www.hhs.gov/.

  197. Office, New York City Mayor’s. “Mayor De Blasio Announces Expansion of Community Partnership to Encourage Social Distancing as Part of New Taskforce on Racial Inclusion and Equity Recommendations.” The Official Website of the City of New York, May 2020, http://www1.nyc.gov/.

  198. Ojikutu, Bisola O., et al. “Opinion \Textbar A Covid-19 Vaccine Can Ensure Better Outcomes for Communities of Color. Let’s Work to Earn Their Trust.” Washington Post, July 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  199. Oliveira, Alexandra. “Black People Are Dying from Coronavirus — Air Pollution Is One of the Main Culprits.” TheHill, May 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  200. Oppel Jr., Richard A., et al. “The Fullest Look Yet at the Racial Inequity of Coronavirus.” The New York Times, July 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  201. Ortiz, Erik. “Native Americans Are Undercounted in the Census. In 2020, It Could Be ‘Devastating.".” NBC News, July 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/.

  202. Ortiz, Jorge L. “Coronavirus Pandemic Tearing through Latino Communities – and It May Get Worse.” USA TODAY, July 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  203. Overberg, Paul, and Jon Kamp. “WSJ News Exclusive \Textbar Covid-19 Deaths Skew Younger Among Minorities.” Wall Street Journal, August 2020, https://www.wsj.com/.

  204. Owens, Adam. “Physicians Offer Free COVID-19 Testing for Minority Communities, Hardest Hit by Virus.” WRAL.com, September 2020, https://www.wral.com/.

  205. Pandika, Melissa. “Pregnant Latinx Women Are Contracting COVID-19 at an Alarming Rate.” Mic, August 2020, https://www.mic.com/.

  206. Papenfuss, Mary. “Surgeon General Singles Out People Of Color To Stop Alcohol, Drugs In COVID-19 Fight.” HuffPost, April 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/.

  207. Parker, Adam. “Black People Bear the Brunt of Coronavirus but Hesitate to Get Medical Help.” Post and Courier, August 2020, https://www.postandcourier.com/.

  208. Peek, Monica. “Commentary: Food Insecurity Adds to COVID-19 Vulnerability for Too Many.” Chicago Tribune (Online), April 2020, https://www.chicagotribune.com/.

  209. Perez, Matt. “Hispanic, Black And American Indian Children Die From The Coronavirus At Disproportionate Rates, CDC Finds.” Forbes, September 2020, https://www.forbes.com/.

  210. Perrett, Connor. “Black People Account for 72% of COVID-19 Deaths in Chicago While Making up Less than a Third of City’s Population, Mayor Says.” Business Insider, US edition, April 2020, https://www.businessinsider.com/.

  211. Pilkington, Ed. “Covid-19 Death Rate among African Americans and Latinos Rising Sharply.” The Guardian, September 2020, http://www.theguardian.com/.

  212. Podesta, John, and Cecilia Martinez. “COVID-19 Relief and Economic Recovery Must Dismantle Environmental Racism.” TheHill, July 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  213. Pope IV, Jonas. “With COVID-19 Cases Climbing, NC Women’s Prison Plans Mass Testing This Week.” The Charlotte Observer, July 2020, https://www.charlotteobserver.com/.

  214. Poston, Ben, et al. “Younger Blacks and Latinos Are Dying of COVID-19 at Higher Rates in California.” Los Angeles Times, April 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  215. ---. “Coronavirus Batters Younger Latinos and Blacks in California.” The Los Angeles Times, April 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  216. Prohov, Jennifer, and Tashara Parker. “Black COVID-19 Patients in Dallas County, Nationwide Are Hospitalized at Higher Rates, Data Shows.” WFAA, April 2020, https://www.wfaa.com/.

  217. Project, The Marshall. “A State-by-State Look at Coronavirus in Prisons.” The Marshall Project, June 2020, https://www.themarshallproject.org/.

  218. Putterman, Alex. “Survey: Racial, Socioeconomical, and Age Differencess Related to Administration of COVID-19 Vaccine: 20% of Connecticut Residents Wouldn’t Get Vaccinated for COVID-19; Strong Support for Mask-Wearing.” Courant.com, September 2020, https://www.courant.com/.

  219. Rabin, Roni Caryn. “Why the Coronavirus More Often Strikes Children of Color.” The New York Times, September 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  220. Rashid, Inzamam. “Coronavirus: ’Urgent Action’ Needed to Protect BAME Groups from COVID-19, Scientists Say.” Sky News, July 2020, https://news.sky.com/.

  221. Ray, Rashawn. “Why Are Blacks Dying at Higher Rates from COVID-19?” Brookings Institute, April 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/.

  222. Richards, Kimberley. “Colin Kaepernick Launches COVID-19 Relief Fund For Black And Brown Communities.” The Huffington Post, April 2020, https://www.huffpost.com/.

  223. Rios, Edwin, and Sinduja Rangarajan. “COVID-19 Has Infected and Killed Black People at Alarming Rates. This Data Proves It.” Mother Jones, April 2020, https://www.motherjones.com/.

  224. Roberts, Jane. “COVID Testing Lags in Latino Community When Workers Can’t Afford Job Loss.” The Daily Memphian, June 2020, https://dailymemphian.com/.

  225. Robertson, Sally. “African American Communities More Burdened by COVID-19, Say Researchers.” News Medical Life Sciences, May 2020, https://www.news-medical.net/.

  226. Romero, Farida Jhabvala. “ICE Detainees Go on Hunger Strike to Press for COVID-19 Protections.” The World from PRX, September 2020, https://www.pri.org/.

  227. Romo, Vanessa. “Black Mayors Call For Governors To Let Them Enforce Rules To Fight COVID-19.” NPR.org, July 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  228. Romoser, James. “Siding with Jail Officials, Court Lifts Injunction That Imposed Coronavirus Safety Measures.” SCOTUSblog, August 2020, https://www.scotusblog.com/.

  229. Russell, Anna. “The Rise of Coronavirus Hate Crimes.” The New Yorker, March 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  230. Salamanca, Jean-Paul. “Latino Advocates: COVID-19 Stats Don’t Include Immigrants Who Avoid Tests, Die at Home.” Newsday, July 2020, https://www.newsday.com/.

  231. Sanchez, Gabriel R., et al. “COVID-19 Is Having a Devastating Impact on the Economic Well-Being of Latino Families.” Brookings, July 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/.

  232. Sandoiu, Ana. The Effects of COVID-19 on the Mental Health of Indigenous Communities. July 2020, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/.

  233. Sandronsky, Seth. “MultiBrief: New Economic Policy Institute Report Looks at the Effects of COVID-19 on Latinx Workers.” MultiBrief, August 2020, http://exclusive.multibriefs.com/.

  234. Santhanam, Laura. “WATCH: Health Officials Testify on Racial Disparities in COVID-19 Response.” PBS NewsHour, July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/.

  235. Satterfield, Kolbie. “Black Nurses Matter March on DC Streets Helps Fight for Health Disparities in Black Community.” wusa9.Com, August 2020, https://www.wusa9.com/.

  236. Schwartz, Matthew. “Children Can Get Severe COVID-19, CDC Says — Especially Black And Hispanic Children.” NPR.org, August 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  237. Scott, Dylan. “Housing Segregation Left Black Americans More Vulnerable to Covid-19.” Vox, July 2020, https://www.vox.com/.

  238. Segal, David. “Housekeepers Face a Disaster Generations in the Making.” The New York Times, September 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  239. ---. “Why Are There Almost No Memorials to the Flu of 1918?” The New York Times, May 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  240. Seipel, Brooke. “1,000 Inmates at Texas Federal Prison Test Positive for COVID-19.” TheHill, July 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  241. Serkez, Yaryna. “Who Is Most Likely to Die From the Coronavirus?” The New York Times, June 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  242. Servick, Kelly. “‘Huge Hole’ in COVID-19 Testing Data Makes It Harder to Study Racial Disparities.” Science \Textbar AAAS, July 2020, https://www.sciencemag.org/.

  243. Shalby, Colleen. “L.A. County Finally Seeing Declines in Latino, Black Coronavirus Mortality Rates.” Los Angeles Times, August 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  244. Siese, April. “More than 500 Inmates at Arizona Prison Test Positive for COVID-19, According to Corrections Officials.” CBS News, August 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  245. Simmons-Duffin, Selena, and Pien Huang. “CDC Employees Call For Racial Justice At The Federal Agency.” NPR, July 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  246. Simon, Mallory. “Over 1,000 Health Professionals Sign a Letter Saying, Don’t Shut down Protests Using Coronavirus Concerns as an Excuse.” CNN, June 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  247. Simpson, Tonya, and Luke Barr. “As Coronavirus Spreads through Nation’s Jails and Prisons, Lawmakers Demand More Transparency on Toll.” ABC News, August 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/.

  248. Sivashanker, Karthik, et al. “A Data-Driven Approach to Addressing Racial Disparities in Health Care Outcomes.” Harvard Business Review, July 2020, https://hbr.org/.

  249. Snow, Anita. “Latino, Black Neighborhoods Struggle with COVID-19 Test Disparities.” PBS NewsHour, July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/.

  250. Sokolow, Amy. “With Science and Scripture, a Pastor Fights Covid-19 Vaccine Skepticism.” STAT, August 2020, https://www.statnews.com/.

  251. Solman, Paul. “The Economics behind Racial Coronavirus Disparities.” PBS NewsHour, July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/.

  252. Somvichian-Clausen, Austa. “Latinos Disproportionately Affected by Coronavirus, Sheds a Light onto Existing Inequities.” The Hill, August 2020, https://thehill.com/.

  253. Stafford, Kat, and Hannah Fingerhut. “Poll: Black Americans Most Likely to Know a COVID-19 Victim.” Associated Press, June 2020, https://apnews.com/.

  254. Stafford, Kat, et al. “Outcry over Racial Data Grows as Virus Slams Black Americans.” Associated Press, April 2020, https://apnews.com/.

  255. Stankey, John. Changing America: Why 2020 Can Be a Turning Point For Police Reform, Social Justice. 2020, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  256. Stebbins, Carla Baranauckas and Samuel. “Minorities Are Disproportionately Affected by COVID-19. This Is How It Varies by State.” USA TODAY, July 2020, https://www.usatoday.com/.

  257. Sternlicht, Alexandra. “Prisoners 550% More Likely To Get Covid-19, 300% More Likely To Die, New Study Shows.” Forbes, July 2020, https://www.forbes.com/.

  258. Stobbe, Mike. “US Agency Vows Steps to Address COVID-19 Inequalities.” ABC News, July 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/.

  259. Sullivan, Robert. “Careful How You Hate on Philadelphia.” The New Yorker, April 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  260. Tahir, Darius, and Adam Cancryn. “American Indian Tribes Thwarted in Efforts to Get Coronavirus Data.” POLITICO, June 2020, https://www.politico.com/.

  261. Taylor, Keeanga-Yamahtta. “The Black Plague.” The New Yorker, April 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  262. Terada, Youki. “Covid-19’s Impact on Students’ Academic and Mental Well-Being.” Edutopia, June 2020, https://www.edutopia.org/.

  263. Thebault, Reis, et al. “The Coronavirus Is Infecting and Killing Black Americans at an Alarmingly High Rate.” The Washington Post, April 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  264. Thomas, Mark Blackwell. “Study Finds That COVID-19 Is Hitting Older Black and Latinx Persons Hardest.” Florida State University News, August 2020, https://news.fsu.edu/.

  265. Thomas, Naomi. “Jails Can Spread Coronavirus to Nearby Communities, Study Finds.” CNN, August 2020, https://www.cnn.com/.

  266. Thompson, Dennis. “America’s Prisons Are Breeding Grounds for COVID.” WebMD, May 2020, https://www.webmd.com/.

  267. Thorbecke, Catherine, and Arielle Mitropoulos. “’Extreme Inequality Was the Preexisting Condition’: How COVID-19 Widened America’s Wealth Gap.” ABC News, June 2020, https://abcnews.go.com/.

  268. Thrasher, Steven W. “An Uprising Comes From the Viral Underclass.” Slate Magazine, June 2020, https://slate.com/.

  269. ---. “Self-Isolation Could Save Us, but It Won’t Make Everyone Safer.” Slate Magazine, March 2020, https://slate.com/.

  270. Tirrell, Meg, et al. “Early Coronavirus Drug Trials Tested Vaccines Mostly on White People; next Phase Aims for Diversity.” CNBC, July 2020, https://www.cnbc.com/.

  271. Torbay, Rabih. “COVID-19 Laid Bare How Systemic Inequities Remain.” Health Affairs, vol. 39, no. 9, September 2020, pp. 1656–56, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01248.

  272. Triplett, Nicole. “Coronavirus Contact Tracing Apps Aren’t Worth the Health Risk to Black and Latinx People - The Boston Globe.” The Boston Globe, June 2020, https://www.bostonglobe.com/.

  273. Tsai, Jennifer. “COVID-19’s Disparate Impacts Are Not a Story about Race: They a Story About Racism.” Scientific American, September 2020, https://www.scientificamerican.com/.

  274. UCL. “BAME Groups Two to Three Times More Likely to Die from Covid-19.” UCL News, May 2020, https://www.ucl.ac.uk/.

  275. Valentino-DeVries, Jennifer, et al. “Location Data Says It All: Staying at Home During Coronavirus Is a Luxury.” The New York Times, April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  276. Vaughn, Carol. “Black Voters Matter Holds COVID-19 Health Briefing for Shore Workers.” Eastern Shore Post, May 2020, https://www.easternshorepost.com/.

  277. Villarosa, Linda, and Kasimu Harris. ‘A Terrible Price’: The Deadly Racial Disparities of Covid-19 in America. April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  278. Vinopal, Courtney. “WATCH: Doctors Testify on COVID-19 Racial Disparities among Seniors.” PBS NewsHour, July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/.

  279. Wainman, Laura. “In Virginia, African-American and Latin Communities Have Higher Rate of Coronavirus Cases.” WUSA, May 2020, https://www.wusa9.com/.

  280. Wan, William. “Coronavirus Kills Far More Hispanic and Black Children than White Youths, CDC Study Finds.” Washington Post, September 2020, https://www.washingtonpost.com/.

  281. Welsh-Huggins, Andrew. “CDC Study Suggests Inmates Should Have Been Tested in Mass for COVID-19.” Wwltv.com, August 2020, https://www.wwltv.com/.

  282. Wen, Leana, and Nakisa Sadeghi. Addressing Racial Health Disparities In The COVID-19 Pandemic: Immediate And Long-Term Policy Solutions \Textbar Health Affairs. July 2020, https://www.healthaffairs.org/.

  283. Westervelt, Eric, and Marisa Penaloza. “’Our Communities Are In Crisis’: Latinos And COVID-19.” NPR, August 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  284. Wetsman, Nicole. “Prisons Battling COVID-19 Face Another Disease Threat This Fall.” The Verge, September 2020, https://www.theverge.com/.

  285. Williams, Timothy, et al. “Coronavirus Cases Rise Sharply in Prisons Even as They Plateau Nationwide.” The New York Times, June 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  286. Wingfield, Adia Harvey. “The Disproportionate Impact of Covid-19 on Black Health Care Workers in the U.S.” Harvard Business Review, May 2020, https://hbr.org/.

  287. Winton, Richard, et al. “San Quentin Coronavirus Outbreak Spreads: 1,113 Prisoners Infected, Death Row Inmate Dies.” Los Angeles Times, June 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  288. Wolf, Marin. “How Coronavirus and Race Collide in the U.S.” Bloomberg.com, August 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/.

  289. Wray, Sarah. “Bloomberg Releases COVID-19 Data Metrics for Cities.” Cities Today - Connecting the World’s Urban Leaders, June 2020, https://cities-today.com/.

  290. Wu, Katherine J. “Study Finds 1 in 5 People Worldwide at Risk of Severe Covid-19.” The New York Times, June 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  291. ---. “Study of Coronavirus in Pregnant Women Finds Striking Racial Differences.” The New York Times, July 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  292. Yam, Kimmy. “150 Members of Congress Demand Justice Department Action against Anti-Asian, COVID-19 Racism.” NBC News, July 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/.

  293. ---. “Black, Asian and Hispanic House Caucus Chairs Unite in ’No Tolerance’ for Coronavirus Racism.” NBC News, March 2020, https://www.nbcnews.com/.

  294. Yu, Elly. “Extended Families Living Together Raise Risks For COVID-19 Transmission.” NPR.org, August 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  295. Zarefsky, Marc. “Why African American Communities Are Being Hit Hard by COVID-19.” American Medical Association, May 2020, https://www.ama-assn.org/.

  296. Zimmer, Carl. “DNA Inherited From Neanderthals May Increase Risk of Covid-19.” The New York Times, July 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  297. Zuluaga, Maritza. “How Is Online Education Affecting Latinx Children During COVID-19?” AL DÍA News, September 2020, https://aldianews.com/.

  298. for Disease Control and Prevention, U. S. Centers. “COVID-19 in Racial and Ethnic Minority Groups.” CDC, February 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/.

  299. ABC 11 News. “ABC News Announces 3 Days of Coverage Devoted to Race, Class during Coronavirus Pandemic.” ABC 11 Eyewitness News, May 2020, https://abc11.com/.

  300. AHA. AHA Resource Spotlights Efforts to Address Social Needs and Health Inequity during COVID-19. August 2020, https://www.aha.org/.

  301. AIDS United. Ending Racist Systems. June 2020, https://www.poz.com/.

  302. American Heart Association News. “AHA News: Researchers Explore How COVID-19 Affects Heart Health in Black Women.” US News & World Report, August 2020, https://www.usnews.com/.

  303. Associated Press Television News. “Tribal Health Board: Native Americans Hit Hard by COVID-19.” Republic World, June 2020, https://www.republicworld.com/.

  304. Associated Press. “Thousands Expected to Walk off the Job Monday to Protest Racial Inequality.” Los Angeles Times, July 2020, https://www.latimes.com/.

  305. ---. COVID-19 Racial Disparities: Inside the Outbreak. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/.

  306. CBS 58 Newsroom. “’Societal Failure:’ Milwaukee Urban League Discusses Impact of COVID-19 on African American Community.” CBS58, May 2020, https://www.cbs58.com/.

  307. CBS News. “Coronavirus Is Third Biggest Cause of Death among Black Americans, Experts Say.” CBS News, August 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  308. ---. “Dr. Fauci on Why the Coronavirus Is Wreaking Havoc on Black Communities.” CBS News, July 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  309. CBS News, et al. Black and Latino Americans Underrepresented in COVID-19 Vaccine Trials, despite Being Hit the Hardest. September 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/.

  310. CBS SF. Fifth San Quentin Death Row Inmate Dies During Prison COVID-19 Outbreak. July 2020, https://sanfrancisco.cbslocal.com/.

  311. CNN. “Prison Inmates Are Twice as Likely to Die of Covid-19 than Those on the Outside, New Report Finds.” CBS58, September 2020, https://www.cbs58.com/.

  312. Curve Staff. “Human Rights Campaign Releases New Data Showing Latinx LGBTQ People Suffer Disproportionate Impact From COVID-19 Economic Fallout.” CURVE, September 2020, https://www.curvemag.com/.

  313. DocWire News. Comorbidities Associated with Mortality in 31,461 Adults with COVID-19 in the United States: A Federated Electronic Medical Record Analysis. September 2020, https://www.docwirenews.com/.

  314. Insider NJ. “Sumter & Jimenez Bill to Create COVID-19 Pandemic Task Force to Study Racial and Health Disparities Approved by Assembly Panel.” Insider NJ, June 2020, https://www.insidernj.com/.

  315. International Labour Organization. COVID-19 Cruelly Highlights Inequalities and Threatens to Deepen Them. March 2020, http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_740101/lang–en/index.htm.

  316. Lisa Cooper. The Silver Lining in COVID-19’s Dark Clouds. 2020, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  317. NPR. “Harvard Researcher Discusses Why COVID-19 Is Devastating Communities Of Color.” NPR.org, September 2020, https://www.npr.org/.

  318. NYU Langone Health. “New Study Finds Racial Disparities in COVID-19-Related Deaths Exist Beyond Income Differences in 10 Large U.S. Cities.” Cision PR Newswire, July 2020, https://www.prnewswire.com/.

  319. National Institutes of Health. “NIH Funds Community Engagement Research Efforts in Areas Hardest Hit by COVID-19.” National Institutes of Health (NIH), September 2020, https://www.nih.gov/.

  320. National Urban League. “2020 State Of Black America Examines The Depth Of Systemic Inequality Exposed By The Coronavirus Epidemic.” State of Black America, September 2020, https://soba.iamempowered.com.

  321. PBS NewsHour. “How Structural Racism Is Magnifying the Public Health Crisis.” PBS NewsHour, July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/.

  322. Peter S. Goodman. “The Other Way Covid Will Kill: Hunger.” New York Times, September 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  323. Public Policy Institute. “New Analysis Looks at Jail Populations amid COVID-19 Pandemic.” Indiana University Public Policy Institute, June 2020, https://policyinstitute.iu.edu/.

  324. Rashawn Ray. “How to Reduce the Racial Gap in COVID-19 Deaths.” Brookings, April 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/.

  325. The Associated Press. “UN Chief: Virus Reversed Fragile Progress on Gender Equality.” The New York Times, August 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  326. ---. “COVID-19 Outbreak Reported at Fort Worth Federal Medical Prison.” NBC 5 Dallas-Fort Worth, July 2020, https://www.nbcdfw.com/.

  327. ---. “National Guard Helps Operate Prison amid COVID-19.” Dubois County Herald, September 2020, https://duboiscountyherald.com/.

  328. UCLA. “Blacks and Latinos Far More Likely to Be Facing Housing Displacement during Pandemic.” ScienceBlog.com, August 2020, https://scienceblog.com/.

  329. leslie. Sen. Kamala Harris Announces Anti-Racism Bill to Fight COVID-19’s Impact on Black Communities \Textbar The Crusader Newspaper Group. July 2020, https://chicagocrusader.com/.


Scholarly Publications

  1. “ACTION PLAN NEEDED: COVID-19 IMPACT ON BAME GROUPS: THE JOURNAL OF THE HEALTH VISITORS’ ASSOCIATION.” Community Practitioner, vol. 93, no. 4, 2020, https://pesquisa.bvsalud.org/global-literature-on-novel-coronavirus-2019-ncov/resource/en/covidwho-655141.

  2. “Johns Hopkins Report: Covid-19 by the Numbers.” State of Black America, https://soba.iamempowered.com/.

  3. “Coronavirus Maps: How Severe Is Your State’s Outbreak?” NPR.org, https://www.npr.org/sections/health-shots/2020/09/01/816707182/map-tracking-the-spread-of-the-coronavirus-in-the-u-s.

  4. Abbas, Sundas, et al. “COVID-19 Infection and Its Deadly Cytokine Storm in a Young Obese Adult.” Journal of Community Hospital Internal Medicine Perspectives; Abington, vol. 10, no. 4, August 2020, pp. 295–98, doi:DOI: 10.1080/20009666.2020.1781030.

  5. Abbasi, Jennifer. “Taking a Closer Look at COVID-19, Health Inequities, and Racism.” JAMA; Chicago, June 2020, doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/10.1001/jama.2020.11672.

  6. Abedi, Vida, et al. “Racial, Economic, and Health Inequality and COVID-19 Infection in the United States.” Journal of Racial and Ethnic Health Disparities, May 2020, doi:10.1007/s40615-020-00833-4.

  7. Abrams, Elissa M., and Stanley J. Szefler. “COVID-19 and the Impact of Social Determinants of Health.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, vol. 8, no. 7, July 2020, pp. 659–61, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30234-4.

  8. Abuelgasim, Eyad, et al. “COVID-19: Unique Public Health Issues Facing Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Communities.” Current Problems in Cardiology, vol. 45, no. 8, August 2020, p. 100621, doi:10.1016/j.cpcardiol.2020.100621.

  9. Albro, Robert, and Eric Hershberg. Assessing Impacts of the COVID-19 Pandemic on Latino-Owned Businesses in the DC-Metro Region. June 2020, p. 14, https://www.american.edu/centers/latin-american-latino-studies/.

  10. Alexander, Apryl A., et al. “Sick and Shut In: Incarceration During a Public Health Crisis.” The Journal of Humanistic Psychology; Beverly Hills, vol. 60, no. 5, September 2020, pp. 647–56, doi:https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/0022167820930556.

  11. Alkhatib, Ala L., et al. “BMI Is Associated with Coronavirus Disease 2019 Intensive Care Unit Admission in African Americans.” Obesity (Silver Spring, Md.), August 2020, doi:10.1002/oby.22937.

  12. Alobuia, Wilson M., et al. “Racial Disparities in Knowledge, Attitudes and Practices Related to COVID-19 in the USA.” Journal of Public Health, vol. 42, no. 3, August 2020, pp. 470–78, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa069.

  13. Azar, Kristen M. J., et al. “Disparities In Outcomes Among COVID-19 Patients In A Large Health Care System In California.” Health Affairs, May 2020, p. 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00598.

  14. Barber, Sharrelle. “Death by Racism.” The Lancet Infectious Diseases, vol. 20, no. 8, August 2020, p. 903, doi:10.1016/S1473-3099(20)30567-3.

  15. Bassolas, Aleix, et al. “Disproportionate Incidence of COVID-19 in African Americans Correlates with Dynamic Segregation.” MedRxiv, July 2020, https://doi.org/10.1101/2020.07.08.20148742.

  16. Belanger, Matthew J., et al. “Covid-19 and Disparities in Nutrition and Obesity.” New England Journal of Medicine, July 2020, p. null, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2021264.

  17. Bendix, Jeffrey. “African Americans with COVID-19 More Likely to Be Hospitalized than Whites.” Medical Economics, vol. 97, no. 11, July 2020, pp. 10–10, https://www.medicaleconomics.com/.

  18. Bhala, Neeraj, et al. “Sharpening the Global Focus on Ethnicity and Race in the Time of COVID-19.” The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10238, May 2020, pp. 1673–76, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31102-8.

  19. Bibbins-Domingo, Kirsten. “This Time Must Be Different: Disparities During the COVID-19 Pandemic.” Annals of Internal Medicine, May 2020, pp. 1–3, doi:10.7326/M20-2247.

  20. Blackstock, Uché. “What the COVID-19 Pandemic Means for Black Americans.” Scientific American Blog Network, April 2020, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/.

  21. Block, Ray, et al. “African American Adherence to COVID-19 Public Health Recommendations.” Health Literacy Research and Practice, vol. 4, no. 3, August 2020, pp. e166–e170, doi:10.3928/24748307-20200707-01.

  22. Bolsover, Gillian. “Black Lives Matter Discourse on US Social Media during COVID: Polarised Positions Enacted in a New Event.” SSRN, September 2020, http://dx.doi.org/10.2139/ssrn.3688909.

  23. Booker, Staja, et al. “Surviving Multiple Pandemics—COVID-19 and Racism for African American Older Adults: A Call to Gerontological Nursing for Social Justice.” Journal of Gerontological Nursing, vol. 46, no. 9, August 2020, pp. 4–6, doi:https://doi.org/10.3928/00989134-20200811-01.

  24. Boyd, Rhea W., et al. On Racism: A New Standard For Publishing On Racial Health Inequities \Textbar Health Affairs. July 2020, https://www.healthaffairs.org/.

  25. Braithwaite, Ronald, and Rueben Warren. “The African American Petri Dish.” Journal of Health Care for the Poor and Underserved, vol. 31, no. 2, June 2020, pp. 491–502, doi:10.1353/hpu.2020.0037.

  26. Brown, Caitlin, and Martin Ravallion. “Poverty, Inequality, and COVID-19 in the US.” VoxEU.org, August 2020, https://voxeu.org/article/poverty-inequality-and-covid-19-us.

  27. Brown, Italo M., et al. “COVID-19 Disparities and the Black Community: A Health Equity–Informed Rapid Response Is Needed.” American Journal of Public Health; Washington, vol. 110, no. 9, September 2020, pp. 1350–51, https://ajph.aphapublications.org/doi/10.2105/AJPH.2020.305804.

  28. Buse, Kent, et al. “COVID-19 Combination Prevention Requires Attention to Structural Drivers.” The Lancet, vol. 396, no. 10249, August 2020, p. 466, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31723-2.

  29. CDC. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, February 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/coronavirus/2019-ncov/covid-data/investigations-discovery/hospitalization-death-by-race-ethnicity.html.

  30. COUCH, K. EN NE TH A., and R. OB ER T. FAIRLIE. “Last Hired, First Fired? Black-White Unemployment and the Business Cycle.” Demography, vol. 47, no. 1, February 2010, pp. 227–47, https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3000014/.

  31. Cahill, Sean, et al. “Sexual and Gender Minority Health in the COVID-19 Pandemic: Why Data Collection and Combatting Discrimination Matter Now More Than Ever.” American Journal of Public Health; Washington, vol. 110, no. 9, September 2020, pp. 1360–61, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305829.

  32. Castro, Shakti. “Surveilling Racialized Bodies.” NACLA Report on the Americas, vol. 52, no. 3, August 2020, pp. 296–302, https://doi.org/10.1080/10714839.2020.1809087.

  33. Chachkhiani, David, et al. “Neurological Complications in a Predominantly African American Sample of COVID-19 Predict Worse Outcomes during Hospitalization.” Clinical Neurology and Neurosurgery, vol. 197, October 2020, p. 106173, doi:10.1016/j.clineuro.2020.106173.

  34. Chastain, Daniel B., et al. “Racial Disproportionality in Covid Clinical Trials.” New England Journal of Medicine, August 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2021971.

  35. Chiriboga, David, et al. “Health Inequity during the COVID-19 Pandemic: a Cry for Ethical Global Leadership.” Lancet (London, England), vol. 395, no. 10238, May 2020, pp. 1690–91, doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(20)31145-4.

  36. Chowkwanyun, Merlin, and Adolph L. Reed. “Racial Health Disparities and Covid-19 — Caution and Context.” New England Journal of Medicine, May 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2012910.

  37. Clark, Andrew, et al. “Global, Regional, and National Estimates of the Population at Increased Risk of Severe COVID-19 Due to Underlying Health Conditions in 2020: a Modelling Study.” The Lancet Global Health, June 2020, doi:10.1016/S2214-109X(20)30264-3.

  38. Claxton, Gary, et al. “Almost One in Four Adult Workers Is Vulnerable to Severe Illness from COVID-19.” KFF, June 2020, https://www.kff.org/.

  39. Cohut, Maria. “How the Pandemic Is Affecting Mental Health in Diverse US Communities.” Medical News Today, May 2020, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/.

  40. Cooper, Lisa A., and Deidra C. Crews. “COVID-19, Racism, and the Pursuit of Health Care and Research Worthy of Trust.” The Journal of Clinical Investigation, July 2020, doi:10.1172/JCI141562.

  41. Cornelissen, Sharon, and Alexander Hermann. “A Triple Pandemic? The Economic Impacts of COVID-19 Disproportionately Affect Black and Hispanic Households.” Joint Center for Housing Studies of Harvard University, July 2020, https://www.jchs.harvard.edu/.

  42. Coughlin, Steven S., et al. “COVID-19 Among African Americans: From Preliminary Epidemiological Surveillance Data to Public Health Action.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, no. 8, August 2020, pp. 1157–59, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305764.

  43. Covey, Ethan. “Older Black Men More Likely Hospitalized for COVID-19.” Infectious Disease Special Edition, August 2020, https://www.idse.net/.

  44. Cyrus, Elena, et al. “The Impact of COVID-19 on African American Communities in the United States.” MedRxiv, May 2020, doi:10.1101/2020.05.15.20096552.

  45. Czeisler, Mark E., et al. “Mental Health, Substance Use, and Suicidal Ideation During the COVID-19 Pandemic — United States, June 24–30, 2020.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 69, August 2020, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932a1.

  46. Dyer, Owen. “Covid-19: Black People and Other Minorities Are Hardest Hit in US.” BMJ, vol. 369, April 2020, pp. 1–2, doi:10.1136/bmj.m1483.

  47. ---. “Covid-19: Minorities Account for 78% of US Deaths in under 21s, Says CDC.” The BMJ, September 2020, https://www.bmj.com/.

  48. Ebinger, Joseph E., et al. “Pre-Existing Traits Associated with Covid-19 Illness Severity.” PLoS ONE, vol. 15, no. 7, July 2020, pp. 1–16, doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0236240.

  49. Egede, Leonard E., and Rebekah J. Walker. “Structural Racism, Social Risk Factors, and Covid-19 — A Dangerous Convergence for Black Americans.” New England Journal of Medicine, July 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2023616.

  50. Elbaum, Alan. “Black Lives in a Pandemic: Implications of Systemic Injustice for End‐of‐Life Care.” The Hastings Center Report, vol. 50, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 58–60, doi:10.1002/hast.1135.

  51. Evans, Megan L., et al. “A Pandemic within a Pandemic — Intimate Partner Violence during Covid-19.” New England Journal of Medicine, September 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2024046.

  52. Ferdinand, Keith C., and Samar A. Nasser. “African American COVID-19 Mortality: A Sentinel Event.” Journal of the American College of Cardiology, vol. 75, no. 21, June 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jacc.2020.04.040.

  53. Figueroa, Jose F., et al. “Community-Level Factors Associated With Racial And Ethnic Disparities In COVID-19 Rates In Massachusetts: Study Examines Community-Level Factors Associated with Racial and Ethnic Disparities in COVID-19 Rates in Massachusetts.” Health Affairs, August 2020, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.01040.

  54. Fink-Samnick, Ellen. ‘Impact of COVID-19 on SDoH and SDoMH Revealed in National Study’. RAC Monitor, June 2020, https://www.racmonitor.com/.

  55. Flanders, W. Dana, et al. “The Association of Voter Turnout with County-Level COVID-19 Occurrence Early in the Pandemic.” Annals of Epidemiology, July 2020, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.06.011.

  56. Flannery, Dustin D., et al. “SARS-CoV-2 Seroprevalence Among Parturient Women.” MedRxiv, July 2020, p. 2020.07.08.20149179, doi:10.1101/2020.07.08.20149179.

  57. Fletcher, Faith E., et al. “COVID-19’s Impact on the African American Community: A Stakeholder Engagement Approach to Increase Public Awareness Through Virtual Town Halls.” Health Equity, vol. 4, no. 1, July 2020, pp. 320–25, doi:10.1089/heq.2020.0029.

  58. Ford, Tiffany, et al. Race Gaps in COVID-19 Deaths Are Even Bigger than They Appear. https://search.proquest.com/docview/2415099836/3B46BBCCC6814120PQ/8?accountid=10226.

  59. Fox, Sharon E., et al. “Pulmonary and Cardiac Pathology in African American Patients with COVID-19: an Autopsy Series from New Orleans.” The Lancet Respiratory Medicine, May 2020, pp. 1–6, doi:10.1016/S2213-2600(20)30243-5.

  60. Garcini, Luz M. “A Tale of Two Crises: The Compounded Effect of COVID-19 and Anti-Immigration Policy in the United States.” Psychological Trauma: Theory, Research, Practice, and Policy, September 2020, doi:10.1037/tra0000775.

  61. Garg, Shikha, et al. “Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Patients Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed Coronavirus Disease 2019 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–30, 2020.” Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report (MMWR), vol. 69, no. 15, April 2020, pp. 458–64, https://www.cdc.gov/mmwr/.

  62. Gayam, Vijay, et al. “Clinical Characteristics and Predictors of Mortality in African‐Americans with COVID‐19 from an Inner‐City Community Teaching Hospital in New York.” Journal of Medical Virology, July 2020, doi:10.1002/jmv.26306.

  63. Giudicessi, John R., et al. “Genetic Susceptibility for COVID-19-Associated Sudden Cardiac Death in African Americans.” Heart Rhythm, May 2020, doi:10.1016/j.hrthm.2020.04.045.

  64. Glass, Eric. “Research Guides: Health Data Resources.” Columbia University Libraries, https://guides.library.columbia.edu/c.php?g=974362&p=7043855.

  65. Godlee, Fiona. “Racism: the Other Pandemic.” BMJ, vol. 369, June 2020, doi:10.1136/bmj.m2303.

  66. Gould, Elise, and Valerie Wilson. Black Workers Face Two of the Most Lethal Preexisting Conditions for Coronavirus—Racism and Economic Inequality. Economic Policy Institute, June 2020, pp. 1–30, https://www.epi.org/publication/black-workers-covid/.

  67. Gover, Angela R., et al. “Anti-Asian Hate Crime During the COVID-19 Pandemic: Exploring the Reproduction of Inequality.” American Journal of Criminal Justice, vol. 45, no. 4, August 2020, pp. 647–67, doi:10.1007/s12103-020-09545-1.

  68. Gravlee, Clarence. “Racism, Not Genetics, Explains Why Black Americans Are Dying Of COVID-19.” Scientific American, June 2020, https://blogs.scientificamerican.com/.

  69. Grooms, Jevay, et al. “The COVID-19 Public Health and Economic Crises Leave Vulnerable Populations Exposed.” Brookings, August 2020, https://www.brookings.edu/.

  70. Hall, Tracie D. “Let Our Legacy Be Justice.” American Libraries Magazine, July 2020, https://americanlibrariesmagazine.org/.

  71. Haokip, Thongkholal. “From ‘Chinky’ to ‘Coronavirus’: Racism against Northeast Indians during the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Asian Ethnicity, May 2020, https://doi.org/10.1080/14631369.2020.1763161.

  72. Hardy, Bradley L., and Trevon D. Logan. Racial Economic Inequality Amid the COVID-19 Crisis. The Hamilton Project & the Brookings Institution, August 2020, p. 14, https://www.brookings.edu/.

  73. Harman, Katharine, et al. “Ethnicity and COVID-19 in Children with Comorbidities.” The Lancet Child & Adolescent Health, vol. 4, no. 7, May 2020, pp. E24–E25, https://doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(20)30167-X.

  74. Harrison, Rachel. NYU School of Global Public Health to Study Impact of COVID-19 on Transit Workers. July 2020, http://www.nyu.edu/.

  75. Ho, Anita, and Iulia Dascalu. “Global Disparity and Solidarity in a Pandemic.” The Hastings Center Report, vol. 50, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 65–67, doi:10.1002/hast.1138.

  76. Holmes, Laurens, et al. “Black–White Risk Differentials in COVID-19 (SARS-COV2) Transmission, Mortality and Case Fatality in the United States: Translational Epidemiologic Perspective and Challenges.” International Journal of Environmental Research and Public Health, vol. 17, no. 12, June 2020, p. 4322, doi:10.3390/ijerph17124322.

  77. Holtgrave, David R., et al. “Assessing Racial and Ethnic Disparities Using a COVID-19 Outcomes Continuum for New York State.” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 48, August 2020, pp. 9–14, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.06.010.

  78. Horn, Daniel M., and Jennifer S. Haas. “Covid-19 and the Mandate to Redefine Preventive Care.” New England Journal of Medicine, August 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMp2018749.

  79. Horowitz, Juliana, et al. “Views on Why Black Americans Face Higher COVID-19 Hospitalization Rates Vary by Party, Race and Ethnicity.” Pew Research Center, June 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/.

  80. Iacobucci, Gareth. “Covid-19: Racism May Be Linked to Ethnic Minorities’ Raised Death Risk, Says PHE.” BMJ : British Medical Journal (Online), vol. 369, June 2020, doi:10.1136/bmj.m2421.

  81. Ives, James. “Study Confirms Higher Rates of Positive COVID-19 Cases in Latinx Populations.” News-Medical.net, June 2020, https://www.news-medical.net/.

  82. Jahromi, Alireza Hamidian, et al. “Why African Americans Are a Potential Target for COVID-19 Infection in the United States.” Journal of Medical Internet Research, vol. 22, no. 6, June 2020, pp. N.PAG–N.PAG, doi:10.2196/19934.

  83. Jawetz, Tom, and Nicole Prchal Svajlenka. “Data on the Coronavirus Outbreak in Immigration Detention Offer More Questions than Answers.” Center for American Progress, June 2020, https://www.americanprogress.org/.

  84. Jean, Tyra. Black Lives Matter: Police Brutality in the Era of COVID-19. June 2020, https://lernercenter.syr.edu/.

  85. Johnson, Antoine S. “From HIV-AIDS to COVID-19: Black Vulnerability and Medical Uncertainty.” AAIHS, June 2020, https://www.aaihs.org/.

  86. Johnson, Nia. “When Blackness Does Not Fade After a Pandemic: An Appeal to Acknowledge the Unequal Burden of Social Isolation.” Journal of Urban Health, vol. 97, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 329–31, doi:10.1007/s11524-020-00451-9.

  87. Karaye, Ibraheem M., and Jennifer A. Horney. “The Impact of Social Vulnerability on COVID-19 in the U.S.: An Analysis of Spatially Varying Relationships.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, June 2020, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2020.06.006.

  88. Kim, Grace S., and Tanvi N. Shah. “When Perceptions Are Fragile But Also Enduring: An Asian American Reflection on COVID-19.” Journal of Humanistic Psychology, vol. 60, no. 5, September 2020, pp. 604–10, doi:10.1177/0022167820937485.

  89. Kim, Lindsay. “Hospitalization Rates and Characteristics of Children Aged 18 Years Hospitalized with Laboratory-Confirmed COVID-19 — COVID-NET, 14 States, March 1–July 25, 2020.” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 69, 2020, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6932e3.

  90. Kim, Sage J., and Wendy Bostwick. “Social Vulnerability and Racial Inequality in COVID-19 Deaths in Chicago.” Health Education and Behavior, vol. 47, no. 4, May 2020, pp. 509–13, doi:10.1177/1090198120929677.

  91. Knittel, Christopher R., and Bora Ozaltun. What Does and Does Not Correlate with COVID-19 Death Rates. June 2020, p. 30, doi:10.1101/2020.06.09.20126805.

  92. Krouse, Helene J. “COVID-19 and the Widening Gap in Health Inequity.” Otolaryngology, vol. 163, no. 1, July 2020, pp. 65–66, doi:10.1177/0194599820926463.

  93. Lara, Olivia D., et al. “COVID‐19 Outcomes of Patients with Gynecologic Cancer in New York City.” Cancer, July 2020, doi:10.1002/cncr.33084.

  94. Lassale, Camille, et al. “Ethnic Disparities in Hospitalisation for COVID-19 in England: The Role of Socioeconomic Factors, Mental Health, and Inflammatory and pro-Inflammatory Factors in a Community-Based Cohort Study.” Brain, Behavior, and Immunity, vol. 88, August 2020, pp. 44–49, doi:10.1016/j.bbi.2020.05.074.

  95. Lee, Ethan. “Harvard Researchers Reveal Unequal Impact of COVID-19 on Black and Latinx Americans.” Harvard Crimson, June 2020, https://www.thecrimson.com/.

  96. Li, Yan, and Sandro Galea. “Racism and the COVID-19 Epidemic: Recommendations for Health Care Workers.” American Journal of Public Health, vol. 110, no. 7, July 2020, pp. 956–57, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305698.

  97. Macias Gil, Raul, et al. “COVID-19 Pandemic: Disparate Health Impact on the Hispanic/Latinx Population in the United States.” The Journal of Infectious Diseases, July 2020, doi:10.1093/infdis/jiaa474.

  98. Mahajan, Uma V., and Margaret Larkins-Pettigrew. “Racial Demographics and COVID-19 Confirmed Cases and Deaths: A Correlational Analysis of 2886 US Counties.” Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England), vol. 42, no. 3, August 2020, pp. 445–47, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa070.

  99. Makgoba, Malegapuru William. “Black Scientists Matter.” Science, vol. 369, no. 6506, August 2020, p. 884, doi:10.1126/science.abe3234.

  100. Malone, Clare. “New York’s Inequalities Are Fueling COVID-19.” FiveThirtyEight, April 2020, https://fivethirtyeight.com/.

  101. Maxwell, Connor. “The Coronavirus Crisis Is Worsening Racial Inequality.” Center for American Progress, June 2020, https://www.americanprogress.org/.

  102. Milam, Adam J., et al. “Are Clinicians Contributing to Excess African American COVID-19 Deaths? Unbeknownst to Them, They May Be.” Health Equity, vol. 4, no. 1, April 2020, pp. 139–41, doi:10.1089/heq.2020.0015.

  103. Millett, Gregorio A., et al. “Assessing Differential Impacts of COVID-19 on Black Communities.” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 47, July 2020, pp. 37–44, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.003.

  104. Mollalo, Abolfazl, et al. “GIS-Based Spatial Modeling of COVID-19 Incidence Rate in the Continental United States.” Science of The Total Environment, vol. 728, August 2020, p. 138884, doi:10.1016/j.scitotenv.2020.138884.

  105. Moore, John T., et al. “Diseases with Health Disparities as Drivers of COVID-19 Outcome.” Journal of Cellular and Molecular Medicine, doi:10.1111/jcmm.15599.

  106. Mukhtar, Sonia. “Psychological Health during the Coronavirus Disease 2019 Pandemic Outbreak.” The International Journal of Social Psychiatry, vol. 66, no. 5, August 2020, pp. 512–16, doi:10.1177/0020764020925835.

  107. Mukumbang, Ferdinand C., et al. “Unspoken Inequality: How COVID-19 Has Exacerbated Existing Vulnerabilities of Asylum-Seekers, Refugees, and Undocumented Migrants in South Africa.” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 19, no. 1, August 2020, p. 141, doi:10.1186/s12939-020-01259-4.

  108. Ng, Edmond. “The Pandemic of Hate Is Giving COVID-19 a Helping Hand.” The American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 102, no. 6, June 2020, p. 1158, doi:10.4269/ajtmh.20-0285.

  109. Nowotny, Kathryn, et al. “COVID-19 Exposes Need for Progressive Criminal Justice Reform.” American Journal of Public Health; Washington, vol. 110, no. 7, June 2020, pp. 967–68, doi:10.2105/AJPH.2020.305707.

  110. Nydegger, Liesl A., and Mandy J. Hill. “Examining COVID-19 and HIV: The Impact of Intersectional Stigma on Short- and Long-Term Health Outcomes among African Americans.” International Social Work, vol. 63, no. 5, July 2020, pp. 655–59, https://doi.org/10.1177/0020872820940017.

  111. Ognyanova, Katherine, et al. “The State of the Nation: A 50-State Covid-19 Survey.” Harvard Kennedy School, April 2020, p. 63, https://www.hks.harvard.edu/.

  112. Ong, Elena. “We Need Equity-Oriented Solutions to COVID-19.” The Nation’s Health, vol. 50, no. 2, May 2020, https://thenationshealth.aphapublications.org/.

  113. Oppel Jr., Richard A., et al. “The Fullest Look Yet at the Racial Inequity of Coronavirus.” The New York Times, July 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  114. Orrell, Brent. “The ‘Soft Racism’ of the COVID-19 Pandemic Response.” AEIdeas, April 2020, https://www.aei.org/.

  115. Patel, J. A., et al. “Poverty, Inequality and COVID-19: the Forgotten Vulnerable.” Public Health, vol. 183, June 2020, pp. 110–11, doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2020.05.006.

  116. Pei, Xin, and Deval Mehta. “#Coronavirus or #Chinesevirus?!: Understanding the Negative Sentiment Reflected in Tweets with Racist Hashtags across the Development of COVID-19.” Cornell University (ArXiv.org), May 2020, https://arxiv.org/abs/2005.08224.

  117. Pelayo, Jerald, et al. “Clinical Characteristics and Outcomes of Community- and Hospital-Acquired Acute Kidney Injury with COVID-19 in a US Inner City Hospital System.” Cardiorenal Medicine, June 2020, pp. 223–31, doi:10.1159/000509182.

  118. Pellegrino, Manuela. “COVID‐19: THE ‘INVISIBLE ENEMY’ AND CONTINGENT RACISM: Reflections of an Italian Anthropologist Conducting Fieldwork in Greece.” Anthropology Today, vol. 36, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 19–21, doi:10.1111/1467-8322.12576.

  119. Pirtle, Laster. “Racial Capitalism: A Fundamental Cause of Novel Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic Inequities in the United States.” Health Education & Behavior, vol. 47, no. 4, August 2020, pp. 504–08, doi:10.1177/1090198120922942.

  120. Pollack, Craig Evan, et al. “When Storms Collide: Evictions, COVID-19, And Health Equity \Textbar Health Affairs.” Health Affairs, August 2020, https://www.healthaffairs.org/.

  121. Price-Haywood, Eboni G., et al. “Hospitalization and Mortality among Black Patients and White Patients with Covid-19.” New England Journal of Medicine, May 2020, doi:10.1056/NEJMsa2011686.

  122. Raifman, Matthew A., and Julia R. Raifman. “Disparities in the Population at Risk of Severe Illness From COVID-19 by Race/Ethnicity and Income.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 59, no. 1, July 2020, pp. 137–39, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2020.04.003.

  123. Raisi-Estabragh, Zahra, et al. “Greater Risk of Severe COVID-19 in Black, Asian and Minority Ethnic Populations Is Not Explained by Cardiometabolic, Socioeconomic or Behavioural Factors, or by 25(OH)-Vitamin D Status: Study of 1326 Cases from the UK Biobank.” Journal of Public Health (Oxford, England), vol. 42, no. 3, August 2020, pp. 451–60, doi:10.1093/pubmed/fdaa095.

  124. Randolph, Gregory W. “One Virus, Undivided … Equity, And The Corona Virus.” Laryngoscope Investigative Otolaryngology, vol. 5, no. 3, June 2020, pp. 586–89, doi:10.1002/lio2.398.

  125. Richardson, Jason, et al. The Lasting Impact of Historic ’Redlining’ on Neighborhood Health: Higher Prevalence of Covid-19 Risk Factors. The National Community Reinvestment Coalition, September 2020, p. 55, https://www.ncrc.org/holc-health/.

  126. Ridgway, Jessica P., et al. “A Case Series of Five People Living with HIV Hospitalized with COVID-19 in Chicago, Illinois.” AIDS Patient Care & STDs, vol. 34, no. 8, July 2020, pp. 331–35, doi:10.1089/apc.2020.0103.

  127. Rodriguez, Robert M. “Tackling Another COVID-19 Pandemic Disparity - Distance from Major Academic Medical Centers Encumbers Emergency and Critical Care Physician Surge Capacity.” Academic Emergency Medicine, September 2020, doi:10.1111/acem.14123.

  128. Rodriguez, Sandra. “New American University Report Shows Dramatic Impacts of COVID-19 on Latino-Owned Businesses in the Washington, D.C. Area.” American University, June 2020, https://www.american.edu/.

  129. Rogers, Tiana N., et al. “Racial Disparities in COVID‐19 Mortality Among Essential Workers in the United States.” World Medical & Health Policy, vol. 12, no. 3, August 2020, pp. 311–27, doi:10.1002/wmh3.358.

  130. Ross, Jonathan, et al. “The Disproportionate Burden of COVID-19 for Immigrants in the Bronx, New York.” JAMA Internal Medicine, May 2020, pp. E1–E2, doi:10.1001/jamainternmed.2020.2131.

  131. Rozenfeld, Yelena, et al. “A Model of Disparities: Risk Factors Associated with COVID-19 Infection.” International Journal for Equity in Health, vol. 19, 2020, pp. 1–10, doi:10.1186/s12939-020-01242-z.

  132. Rubin-Miller, Lily, et al. “COVID-19 Racial Disparities in Testing, Infection, Hospitalization, and Death: Analysis of Epic Patient Data.” KFF, September 2020, https://www.kff.org.

  133. Ruiz, Neil, et al. “Many Black, Asian Americans Say They Have Experienced Discrimination Amid Coronavirus.” Pew Research Center’s Social & Demographic Trends Project, July 2020, https://www.pewsocialtrends.org/.

  134. Salisbury-Afshar, Elizabeth M., et al. “Vulnerable Populations: Weathering the Pandemic Storm.” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 58, no. 6, June 2020, pp. 892–94, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2020.04.002.

  135. Sandoiu, Ana. “Racial Inequalities in COVID-19—The Impact on Black Communities.” Medical News Today, June 2020, https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/.

  136. Schmitt-Grohé, Stephanie, et al. Covid-19: Testing Inequality in New York City. National Bureau of Economic Research, April 2020, p. w27019, doi:10.3386/w27019.

  137. Schneider, Lindsey, et al. “Native American Tribes’ Pandemic Response Is Hamstrung by Many Inequities.” Red, Green, and Blue, June 2020, http://redgreenandblue.org/.

  138. Schulz, Amy J., et al. “Moving Health Education and Behavior Upstream: Lessons From COVID-19 for Addressing Structural Drivers of Health Inequities.” Health Education and Behavior; Thousand Oaks, vol. 47, no. 4, August 2020, pp. 519–24, doi:http://dx.doi.org.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/10.1177/1090198120929985.

  139. Selden, Thomas M., and Terceira A. Berdahl. “COVID-19 And Racial/Ethnic Disparities In Health Risk, Employment, And Household Composition.” Health Affairs, July 2020, p. 10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00897, doi:10.1377/hlthaff.2020.00897.

  140. Shenassa, Edmond D., and Andrew D. Williams. “Concomitant Exposure to Area-Level Poverty, Ambient Air Volatile Organic Compounds, and Cardiometabolic Dysfunction: a Cross-Sectional Study of U.S. Adolescents.” Annals of Epidemiology, vol. 48, August 2020, pp. 15–22, doi:10.1016/j.annepidem.2020.05.014.

  141. Shim, Ruth S. “Mental Health Inequities in the Context of COVID-19.” JAMA Network Open, vol. 3, no. 9, September 2020, pp. e2020104–e2020104, doi:10.1001/jamanetworkopen.2020.20104.

  142. Shippee, Tetyana P., et al. “COVID-19 Pandemic: Exacerbating Racial/Ethnic Disparities in Long-Term Services and Supports.” Journal of Aging & Social Policy, May 2020, pp. 1–11, doi:10.1080/08959420.2020.1772004.

  143. Sood, Lakshay, and Vanita Sood. “Being African American and Rural: A Double Jeopardy from Covid-19.” The Journal of Rural Health, May 2020, doi:10.1111/jrh.12459.

  144. Sternberg, Audrey. “McCloskey Explores Merits of Targeted Treatments and HMAs in MDS.” Targeted Oncology, August 2020, https://www.targetedonc.com/view/mccloskey-explores-merits-of-targeted-treatments-and-hmas-in-mds.

  145. Tal, Yuval, et al. “Racial Disparity in Covid-19 Mortality Rates - A Plausible Explanation.” Clinical Immunology, vol. 217, August 2020, p. 108481, doi:10.1016/j.clim.2020.108481.

  146. Thorp, Holden. “Time to Look in the Mirror.” Science, vol. 368, no. 6496, June 2020, doi:10.1126/science.abd1896.

  147. Thrasher, Steven W. “Self-Isolation Could Save Us, but It Won’t Make Everyone Safer.” Slate Magazine, March 2020, https://slate.com/.

  148. Unruh, Larissa H., et al. “Letter to the Editor in Response to ‘COVID-19 and the Correctional Environment: The American Prison as a Focal Point for Public Health.’” American Journal of Preventive Medicine, vol. 59, no. 2, August 2020, pp. e89–e90, doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2020.05.003.

  149. Veenstra, Gerry. “Race, Gender, Class, Sexuality (RGCS) and Hypertension.” Social Science & Medicine, vol. 89, July 2013, pp. 16–24, doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2013.04.014.

  150. Vestal, Christine. “Racism Is a Public Health Crisis, Local Governments Declare.” Pew, June 2020, https://www.pewtrusts.org/.

  151. Villarosa, Linda, and Kasimu Harris. ‘A Terrible Price’: The Deadly Racial Disparities of Covid-19 in America. April 2020, https://www.nytimes.com/.

  152. Watson, Marlene F., et al. “COVID-19 Interconnectedness: Health Inequity, the Climate Crisis, and Collective Trauma.” Family Process, June 2020, doi:10.1111/famp.12572.

  153. Williams, J. Corey, et al. “Colorblind Algorithms: Racism in the Era of COVID-19.” Journal of the National Medical Association, June 2020, doi:10.1016/j.jnma.2020.05.010.

  154. Wortham, Jonathan M. “Characteristics of Persons Who Died with COVID-19 — United States, February 12–May 18, 2020.” MMWR. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report, vol. 69, 2020, doi:10.15585/mmwr.mm6928e1.

  155. Yancy, Clyde W. “COVID-19 and African Americans.” JAMA, vol. 323, no. 19, April 2020, pp. 1891–92, doi:10.1001/jama.2020.6548.

  156. van Dorn, Aaron van, et al. “COVID-19 Exacerbating Inequalities in the US.” The Lancet, vol. 395, no. 10232, April 2020, pp. 1243–44, https://search-proquest-com.ezproxy.cul.columbia.edu/docview/2424143618/6336BC158A4D4CF8PQ/1?accountid=10226.

  157. ALA News. “ALA Executive Board Stands with APALA in Condemning Xenophobia, Racism.” American Library Association, May 2020, http://www.ala.org/.

  158. APM Research Lab Staff. “The Color of Coronavirus: COVID-19 Deaths by Race and Ethnicity in the U.S.” APM Research Lab, August 2020, https://www.apmresearchlab.org/covid/deaths-by-race.

  159. CDC. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19).” Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, February 2020, https://www.cdc.gov/.

  160. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC). “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S.: CDC COVID Data Tracker.” CDC.gov, June 2020, https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker/.

  161. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. “Coronavirus Disease 2019 (COVID-19) in the U.S.” CDC.gov, March 2020, https://covid.cdc.gov/covid-data-tracker.

  162. Emory University. Covid-19 Health Equity Interactive Dashboard. 2020, https://covid19.emory.edu/.

  163. Harvard Global Health Institute. July 6, 2020 \Textbar State Testing Targets – Pandemics Explained. July 2020, https://globalepidemics.org/july-6-2020-state-testing-targets/.

  164. Health Affairs. “COVID-19 Eviction Moratoria by State, Commonwealth, and Territory.” Health Affairs, August 2020, https://docs.google.com/spreadsheets/u/1/d/e/2PACX-1vTH8dUIbfnt3X52TrY3dEHQCAm60e5nqo0Rn1rNCf15dPGeXxM9QN9UdxUfEjxwvfTKzbCbZxJMdR7X/pubhtml.

  165. Health Economy. “COVID-19 Hits Some People Harder than Others.” Health Economy, April 2020, http://healtheconomy.net/.

  166. House Committee on Energy and Commerce. “Full Committee Hearing on ‘Oversight of the Trump Administration’s Response to the COVID-19 Pandemic.’” Energy and Commerce Committee, June 2020, https://energycommerce.house.gov/.

  167. Institute of Medicine. Unequal Treatment: Confronting Racial and Ethnic Disparities in Health Care. National Academies Press, 2003, doi:10.17226/10260.

  168. JBHE. “Discrimination Incidents Against African Americans Spike During COVID-19 Pandemic.” Journal of Blacks in Higher Education, April 2020, https://www.jbhe.com/.

  169. Minkler Meredith, et al. “Seizing the Moment: Policy Advocacy to End Mass Incarceration in the Time of COVID-19.” Health Education and Behavior, vol. 47, no. 4, August 2020, pp. 514–18, doi:10.1177/1090198120933281.

  170. NCRC, et al. Redlining and Neighborhood Health » NCRC. National Community Reinvestment Coalition, September 2020, p. 50, https://www.ncrc.org/holc-health/.

  171. National Public Radio, et al. The Impact of Coronovirus on Households in Major U.S. Cities: Survey Background. September 2020, p. 106, https://media.npr.org/assets/img/2020/09/08/cities-report-090920-final.pdf.

  172. New York City Comptroller’s Office. New York City’s Frontline Workers. March 2020, pp. 1–15, https://comptroller.nyc.gov/.

  173. New York City Department of Health. Age Adjusted Rate of Fatal Lab Confirmed COVID-19 Cases per 100,000 by Race/Ethnicity Group as of April 6, 2020. April 2020, https://www1.nyc.gov/assets/doh/downloads/pdf/imm/covid-19-deaths-race-ethnicity-04082020-1.pdf.

  174. Northwestern Institute for Policy Research. Racial Disparities in Food Insecurity Persist: Institute for Policy Research - Northwestern University. July 2020, https://www.ipr.northwestern.edu/.

  175. PCCI Admin. “PCCI’s Vulnerability Index Shows Social Disparities as Leading Risk Factor during COVID-19 Outbreak – PCCI.” PCCI, June 2020, https://pccinnovation.org/.

  176. Pew. “U.S. Public Sees Multiple Threats From the Coronavirus – and Concerns Are Growing; Majorities Express Confidence in CDC and State and Local Officials.” Pew Research Center, February 2020, https://www.pewresearch.org/.

  177. Princeton University Eviction Lab. “The Eviction Tracking System.” Eviction Lab, 2020, https://evictionlab.org/eviction-tracking/.

  178. Public Health England. Beyond the Data: Understanding the Impact of COVID-19 on BAME Communities. Government of the United Kingdom, June 2020, pp. 1–69, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-understanding-the-impact-on-bame-communities.

  179. ---. Disparities in the Risk and Outcomes from COVID-19. Government of the United Kingdom, June 2020, pp. 1–89, https://www.gov.uk/government/publications/covid-19-review-of-disparities-in-risks-and-outcomes.

  180. Public Policy Institute. “New Analysis Looks at Jail Populations amid COVID-19 Pandemic.” Indiana University Public Policy Institute, June 2020, https://policyinstitute.iu.edu/.

  181. Queens Public Library. “Queens Memory Covid-19 Project.” Queens Public Library NYC, 2020, https://qplnyc.urbanarchive.me/cities/nyc.

  182. The Urban Institute. Tracking COVID-19’s Effects by Race and Ethnicity: Weekly Updates on Americans’ Health, Housing, and Livelihoods. June 2020, https://www.urban.org/.

  183. UCLA American Indian Studies Center. “Coronavirus in Indian Country: Latest Case Counts.” UCLA, June 2020, https://www.aisc.ucla.edu/.

  184. Youki Terada. “Covid-19’s Impact on Students’ Academic and Mental Well-Being.” Edutopia, June 2020, https://www.edutopia.org/article/covid-19s-impact-students-academic-and-mental-well-being.


Audiovisual Materials

  1. NPR Poll: Black, Latino Households Struggle To Pay Rent, Mortgages : NPR. https://www.npr.org/2020/09/23/915959090/npr-poll-black-latino-households-struggle-to-pay-rent-mortgages.

  2. Crenshaw, Kimberlé. Under the Blacklight: The Intersectional Vulnerabilities That COVID Lays Bare. https://soundcloud.com/intersectionality-matters/ep-9-under-the-blacklight-the-intersectional-vulnerabilities-that-covid-lays-bare.

  3. Demby, Gene. The United States’ Pre-Existing Conditions: Ed Yong Talks About COVID-19 And Structural Inequality (25 August 2020). https://www.npr.org/2020/08/25/905846282/the-united-states-pre-existing-conditions.

  4. Nast, Condé. “Arkansas Prisoners Organize Against Unchecked Racism and the Coronavirus.” The New Yorker, June 2020, https://www.newyorker.com/.

  5. Alliance for Health Policy. Health Inequities: Addressing the Disease Burden in Black, Indigenous, & People of Color Communities. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5mE5AYZI_U&feature=emb_title.

  6. American Association for Cancer Research. Health Inequities and Disparities in the COVID-19 Pandemic and Impact on Cancer Care. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=-8fCf6xRzSA.

  7. American Bar Association Section of Civil Rights and Social Justice. Issues Affecting Native American Communities During the COVID-19 Crisis. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=0n-bLMsuPf0&feature=youtu.be.

  8. American Medical Association. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 & Native Voices in the Field. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=oMz6Q0ak_6k&feature=youtu.be.

  9. ---. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 & the Experiences of Medical Students. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=s5VzjmHlqgw&feature=emb_title.

  10. ---. COVID-19 Update: Effects on Native American Population. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=_OjrFc_Tb4U&feature=emb_title.

  11. ---. Prioritizing Equity: COVID-19 and Latinx Voices in the Field. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=gw0Hw58uS7U&feature=youtu.be.

  12. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Moving Upstream. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4oI5xS75NLU&feature=youtu.be.

  13. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause & Considerations for Health Care Professionals. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=tpAKKmisCTQ.

  14. ---. COVID-19 Update: Effects on Racially Marginalized Groups. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=d8rJGrV25qw&feature=youtu.be.

  15. ---. Prioritizing Equity: The Root Cause. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=E5-5W-64Jeo&feature=youtu.be.

  16. ---. Prioritizing Equity: Police Brutality and COVID-19. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=R_D0Oio0i9Y.

  17. American Psychological Association. Why Is COVID 19 Disproportionately Affecting Black and Latino Americans with Brian Smedley, PhD. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=XS6nV_G2L_g&feature=youtu.be.

  18. American Public Health Association. COVID-19 and Health Equity — Exploring Disparities and Long-Term Health Impacts. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=mPnSCYjGADo&feature=youtu.be.

  19. Annals on Call. COVID-19 Disparities. https://open.spotify.com/episode/1mGCvi1onlrgy97SKTdaOJ.

  20. BMJ’s Coronavirus (COVID-19) Playlist. Where Race, Disparity, and Pandemic Collide: COVID-19 USA. https://open.spotify.com/episode/2nECRxkKkU7uThdYAMI0IN.

  21. Beyond the White Coat. Racial Health Disparities: How COVID-19 Magnified a Public Health Emergency. https://open.spotify.com/episode/2OBvRWXfyUqnlPt2raaRZ1.

  22. BioConnect. Health Disparities Among COVID-19. https://open.spotify.com/episode/5kvCdIR8H5e2THOuuiysyg.

  23. Bloomberg. Income Inequality Gap Widens Amid COVID-19. September 2020, https://www.bloomberg.com/news/videos/2020-09-01/income-inequality-gap-widens-amid-covid-19-video.

  24. Brookings Institute. The Impact of COVID-19 on Prisons. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=zGwKHFkV6y4&feature=youtu.be.

  25. CA Public Health. Infectious Joy - A California Department of Public Health COVID-19 PSA Targeting Young Latinx and Black People. August 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=SpmVraaPjDc&list=PLZqpl41f-8c8ZazKri1h8eHQwO2Y4wjx2&index=2.

  26. ---. Let’s Get Close - A California Department of Public Health COVID-19 PSA Targeting Young Latinx and Black People. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=eBGAaQsXLmY&list=PLZqpl41f-8c8ZazKri1h8eHQwO2Y4wjx2&index=1.

  27. CBS News. How COVID-19 and Racial Injustice Impact the Mental Health in Black Communities. August 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/video/how-covid-19-and-racial-injustice-impact-the-mental-health-in-black-communities/.

  28. CBS News, et al. Longstanding Issues Put Native American Communities at High COVID-19 Risk. April 2020, https://www.cbsnews.com/news/coronavirus-pandemic-poverty-overcrowding-native-american-communities-navajo-shoshone-tribes/.

  29. CDC. CDC COVID-19 Response Promising Practices in Health Equity II. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=e2XXXyb7C28&feature=emb_title.

  30. CNBC. What COVID-19 Health Disparities Mean to Six Black Medical Professionals. May 2020, https://www.cnbc.com/2020/05/14/how-covid-19-exacerbated-americas-racial-health-disparities.html.

  31. COVID-19 Daily Update: Minnesota Native News. COVID-19 Cases Among Native Americans in Minnesota Likely Underreported. https://open.spotify.com/episode/0PZo9aNzt8WTgszDWEeYuP.

  32. Columbia University African American and African Diaspora Studies Department. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Malo Hutson on the Built Environment". https://open.spotify.com/episode/52nFDhzATnHkjjnNQO71xl.

  33. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Keesha Middlemass on Incarceration and Re-Entry". https://open.spotify.com/episode/02UlRI5wt5vqM2RdcXsBWg.

  34. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Dr. Oni Blackstock on NYC’s Health Response". https://open.spotify.com/episode/1zQSax3WpNxmgrLMrurggT.

  35. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Tramell Thompson on the Frontlines of NYC Subways". https://open.spotify.com/episode/1eTnjtDK0nn0gJWxweBXGm.

  36. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Matt Swain on Being an Essential Healthcare Worker During the Crisis". https://open.spotify.com/episode/4Pgdm7QlRgUBaE6sSOzXNW.

  37. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Saeeda Dunston on Providing Community Services During a Pandemic". https://open.spotify.com/episode/3FIrJ0YCh3P4nk8iEIWWFV.

  38. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Jelani Cobb on the Pandemic, History, and Our ‘American Spring’". https://open.spotify.com/episode/5Wuj0WgIW4PJsUt0jD0z8Y.

  39. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Steven Thrasher on the Criminalization of Disease and Poverty". https://open.spotify.com/episode/4Un9ZiP98dP8liuJWOAvPX.

  40. ---. Black Lives: In the Era of COVID-19: "Prof. Alondra Nelson on Science, Technology, and Social Inequality". https://open.spotify.com/episode/1XMWwsl2ljexm4cr8Mf6Tk.

  41. DemocracyNow. COVID Racial Data Tracker: Ibram X. Kendi on How Better Data Reveals the True Toll of the Pandemic. May 2020, https://www.democracynow.org/2020/5/27/the_covid_racial_data_tracker.

  42. ---. “A Systematic Issue of Disparity”: Black People in Louisiana Account for 70% of COVID-19 Deaths. April 2020, https://www.democracynow.org/2020/4/8/louisiana_coronavirus_prisons.

  43. Duke University. COVID-19 Media Briefing: The Pandemic’s Impact on Black Communities. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=W9y8tTPw9ao&feature=emb_title.

  44. Faces of Diparity. COVID-19: Addressing Systemic Racism in the Midst of Pandemic - Infectious Diseases Society of America \Textbar Podcast on Spotify. https://open.spotify.com/episode/0TluFk1JUTTgg5LCUuHKyg.

  45. Harvard T.H. Chan School of Public Health. COVID-19 Brings Persistent Racial and Ethnic Disparities to Focus. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=S7L-qCft-DY&feature=youtu.be.

  46. House Committee on Education and Labor. Inequities Exposed: How COVID-19 Widened Racial Inequities in Education, Health, and the Workforce. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=ngFgnq4YMIA&feature=emb_title.

  47. International Institute for Environment and Development. Inequality in the Face of COVID-19: How Grassroots Communities Are Taking Action. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RS77xEHq5-0.

  48. International Labour Organization. COVID-19 Cruelly Highlights Inequalities and Threatens to Deepen Them. March 2020, http://www.ilo.org/global/about-the-ilo/newsroom/news/WCMS_740101/lang–en/index.htm.

  49. Ivanhoe Broadcast News. Best Life: COVID-19 Greatly Impacting the African American Community. July 2020, https://www.wmcactionnews5.com/2020/07/09/best-life-covid-greatly-impacting-african-american-community/.

  50. JAMA Medical News. Coronavirus and Health Inequities. https://edhub.ama-assn.org/jn-learning/video-player/18520384.

  51. Jennifer Abbasi (JAMA Medical News). Taking a Closer Look at COVID-19, Health Inequities, and Racism. June 2020, https://jamanetwork.com/journals/jama/fullarticle/2767948.

  52. Johns Hopkins Medicine. COVID-19: Health Disparities. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=umtAJbFl5GY.

  53. KGW8 NBC Staff. Oregon Prison System Faces COVID Challenges during Wildfires \Textbar Kgw.com. September 2020, https://www.kgw.com/article/news/health/coronavirus/oregon-prison-system-faces-covid-challenges-during-wildfire-evacuations-odoc/283-19d23670-0893-4e55-b257-e0937e17ef71.

  54. Mayo Clinic. African American COVID-19 Town Hall April 28, 2020. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=6duYE9cGq4k.

  55. Miriam Delaney Heard (NDRN). The Effects of COVID-19 on the African American Community - National Disability Rights Network. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=aO3U6OPKHt0&feature=youtu.be.

  56. MultcoPresents. Briefing on COVID-19 Disparities for Communities of Color. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4bKJrFxUv8k&feature=emb_title.

  57. NBC News. ’A Living Hell’: Prisoners With COVID-19 Kept In Solitary Confinement \Textbar NBC News NOW. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RFmXwMdDbk0.

  58. National Association of Black Journalists. AMA-NABJ Virtual Town Hall: COVID-19 and the Black Community Town Hall. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=7R0jbgO3QNg&feature=youtu.be.

  59. National Minority Quality Forum. National Minority Quality Forum Webinar: Mental Health & COVID-19. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=P2ft5vw9T7M&feature=youtu.be.

  60. Natural Medicine Journal. Healthcare Disparity and COVID-19. https://open.spotify.com/episode/16SRSmlltj8XpVkCroyI2K.

  61. PBS Newhour. How COVID-19 Is Highlighting Racial Disparities in Americans’ Health. July 2020, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/how-covid-19-is-highlighting-racial-disparities-in-americans-health.

  62. PBS News Hour. ‘We’Re Angry and We’Re Hurting.’ Why Communities of Color Suffer More from COVID-19. May 2020, https://www.pbs.org/newshour/show/were-angry-and-were-hurting-why-communities-of-color-suffer-more-from-covid-19.

  63. PBS Newshour. WATCH LIVE: HHS Updates Public about Impact of COVID-19. July 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=kV5P4RMsTFQ&feature=youtu.be.

  64. Public Health - Seattle & King County. Media Briefing: Update on Impacts of COVID-19 by Race and Ethnicity in King County. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?time_continue=8&v=T4lYCp489Y0&feature=emb_logo.

  65. Public Health on Call. COVID-19’s Particular Threat to Native American Communities. https://open.spotify.com/episode/0xt38J7fzJF6fCgt39mjt4.

  66. RealSciLine. COVID-19: Health Disparities and Vulnerable Populations. May 2020, https://www.sciline.org/media-briefings-blog/covid-health-disparities.

  67. SHEA Podcasts. COVID-19: Racial Disparities, 7/09. https://open.spotify.com/episode/2meRfoGqFoTqI011Yo9NDf.

  68. South Central Rooted. 2:COVID-19 and the Drivers of Disparity. https://open.spotify.com/episode/3mtG3k2HaeGwGO01EAJdZn.

  69. TIME. Watch: Doctors Explain Why COVID-19 May Be More Dangerous for African Americans. May 2020, https://time.com/5833080/scientists-covid-19-african-americans-katie-couric/.

  70. The Charlotte Observer, and er. NC Begins Releasing Some Inmates Early to Fight the Spread of Coronavirus. April 2020, https://www.charlotteobserver.com/news/coronavirus/article242109076.html.

  71. The Community Foundation for Greater New Haven. Donor Briefing on Racial and Ethnic Disparities in the COVID-19 Pandemic. May 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=jyMZGWa_VpE&feature=youtu.be.

  72. The DEI Shift. Disparity Exacerbation, Triggered by COVID19. https://open.spotify.com/episode/24oHU5EVDG4iUJS9I5u86D.

  73. The Daily. The Mistakes New York Made. https://open.spotify.com/episode/5DP0t1vHvYeWbhiTrmrhyK.

  74. The Intercept. Covid-19 Transforming Culture and Media in The United States - System Update with Murtaza Hussain. https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=9EXCMLMxuIY.

  75. The Journal American Medical Association Network. Coronavirus and Health Inequities. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=4Q2MsqfhWZk&feature=youtu.be.

  76. Transnational Institute. Webinar Recording: COVID-19 and the Global Fight against Mass Incarceration. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=PzHvvl0tfB4&feature=youtu.be.

  77. UC Berkley Events. Berkeley Conversations - Straight Talk: A Conversation about Racism, Health Inequities and COVID-19. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=3_tTbvyHDa0&feature=emb_title.

  78. VICE News. Prisoners Are Using Smuggled Cellphones to Show the Coronavirus Nightmare Behind Bars. June 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=DmODcwJmf4c&feature=youtu.be.

  79. WTVR Richmond. COVID-19 Exposing Deeply Rooted Racial Inequalities in Health Care. July 2020, https://www.wtvr.com/news/national-politics/the-race-2020/covid-19-exposing-deeply-rooted-racial-inequalities-in-health-care.

  80. Wall Street Journal. What’s Behind the Biggest Wave of Protests in Decades - The Journal. https://www.wsj.com/podcasts/the-journal/what-behind-the-biggest-wave-of-protests-in-decades/4ce9b8bd-15c6-438a-b990-116f5dc10dea.

  81. We Live Here. COVID-19: Educational Disparities. https://open.spotify.com/episode/1mGCvi1onlrgy97SKTdaOJ.

  82. indianz. COVID-19 and American Racism: A Mohawk Perspective. April 2020, https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=A5EMohDn8SA&feature=youtu.be.


Digital Materials

  1. “Introduction.” Contagious, Duke University Press, 2008, pp. 1–28, doi:10.1215/9780822390572-001.

  2. Adams, Vincanne. “Disasters and Capitalism…and COVID-19.” Somatosphere, March 2020, http://somatosphere.net/2020/disaster-capitalism-covid19.html/.

  3. Bermant, Laia Soto, and Nikolai Ssorin-Chaikov. “Social Anthropology: Vol 28, No 2.” Social Anthropology, May 2020, https://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/toc/14698676/2020/28/2?fbclid=IwAR0gLW4G-z-xW3m2Pl3mXwKoknIfD8vlL8QLnXskuVLzH7TQsoh5k0Yhmsk.

  4. Bonilla-Silva, Eduardo. “Color-Blind Racism in Pandemic Times.” Sociology of Race and Ethnicity, July 2020, p. 2332649220941024, doi:10.1177/2332649220941024.

  5. Chang, Jason Oliver. “Yellow Peril Teach-In Resources.” Google Docs, August 2020, https://docs.google.com/document/u/1/d/1-DLnAY5r-f4DRLZgndR_Bu47nqHVtAOKem5QRmbz7bg/edit?fbclid=IwAR1M-XK-VLRfWXxhuDH-1zJ-o-lgnEGZCC3e74wBOBr7Mtq_B_77agc2Pbc&usp=embed_facebook.

  6. Connell, Raewyn. “COVID-19/Sociology - Raewyn Connell, 2020.” Journal of Sociology, July 2020, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/1440783320943262?fbclid=IwAR2d77KftXZ68efD994zZhM_42nCX1Xdgr1C4-SaZb0qavutIrv8F_n-g0k.

  7. Curley, Andrew. “Contested Water Settlements Inflamed the Navajo Nation’s Health Crisis.” High Country News, August 2020, https://www.hcn.org/articles/indigenous-affairs-water-contested-water-settlements-inflamed-the-navajo-nations-health-crisis.

  8. D’Ignazio, Catherine, and Lauren Klein. “Seven Intersectional Feminist Principles for Equitable and Actionable COVID-19 Data - Catherine D’Ignazio, Lauren F. Klein, 2020.” Big Data & Society, July 2020, https://journals.sagepub.com/doi/10.1177/2053951720942544?fbclid=IwAR3zkyAm9Uy2K_eQ7iwH0coKD2T8NdzhwnkbBKw0C1JlTWMndB0T_LFXLXs&.

  9. Glass, Eric. “Research Guides: Health Data Resources.” Columbia University Libraries, https://guides.library.columbia.edu/c.php?g=974362&p=7043855.

  10. Hebert, Pato, and Alexandra Juhasz. “You’Re Still Sick.” BOMB Magazine, July 2020, https://bombmagazine.org/.

  11. Laterza, Vito, and Louis Philippe Romer. “COVID-19, the Freedom to Die, and the Necropolitics of the Market.” Somatosphere, May 2020, http://somatosphere.net/2020/necropolitics-of-the-market.html/.

  12. Lianke, Yan. “Yan Lianke: What Happens After Coronavirus?” Literary Hub, March 2020, https://lithub.com/yan-lianke-what-happens-after-coronavirus/.

  13. Lima, Lazaro. “Essential Work, Disposable Lives: Latino Invisibility, Black Lives, and Coalition Politics in the Age of Covid-19.” Roosevelt House Public Policy Institute at Hunter College, July 2020, http://www.roosevelthouse.hunter.cuny.edu/?forum-post=essential-work-disposable-lives-latino-invisibility-black-lives-coalition-politics-age-covid-19.

  14. Manley, Gabriela. “Introducing the Pandemic Diaries.” American Ethnological Society, March 2020, https://americanethnologist.org/features/collections/pandemic-diaries/introducing-the-pandemic-diaries.

  15. Merrick, John. “Mike Davis Tried to Warn Us About a Virus-Induced Apocalypse.” Jacobin Magazine, July 2020, https://www.jacobinmag.com/2020/07/mike-davis-coronavirus-the-monster-enters?fbclid=IwAR37afB8hgC83ScE0IJJPUNZCaZ8RPk1hz8CCgGR1LpjXcyMwyxHUiG_JgE.

  16. Preciado, Paul B. “Learning from the Virus.” Art Forum, June 2020, https://www.artforum.com/print/202005/paul-b-preciado-82823.

  17. Roberts, Samuel K. “Podcast Series 2020: ‘Black Lives: In the Era of COVID 19.’” Columbia University African American and African DIaspora Studies Department, June 2020, https://afamstudies.columbia.edu/content/podcast-series-2020-black-lives-era-covid-19.

  18. Roberts, Samuel Kelton. “Bearing Witness: The Covid-19 and Inequality History Documentation Project.” Bearing Witness, https://bearingwitness.github.io//.

  19. Rodriguez, Robert M. “Tackling Another COVID-19 Pandemic Disparity - Distance from Major Academic Medical Centers Encumbers Emergency and Critical Care Physician Surge Capacity.” Academic Emergency Medicine, September 2020, doi:10.1111/acem.14123.

  20. Sanderson, Matthew R. “Here We Are: Agriculture and Human Values in the Coronavirus (COVID-19) Pandemic.” Agriculture and Human Values, vol. 37, no. 3, September 2020, pp. 515–16, doi:10.1007/s10460-020-10040-w.

  21. Wald, Priscilla. Contagious: Cultures, Carriers, and the Outbreak Narrative. Duke University Press, 2008, doi:10.1215/9780822390572.

  22. Brown University IT Service Center. Using Zoom for Remote Teaching. September 2020, https://ithelp.brown.edu/kb/articles/using-zoom-for-remote-teaching.

  23. Department of Modern Languages & Literatures, University of Miami. “Digital Narratives of Covid-19.” Digital Narratives of Covid-19, August 2020, https://covid.dh.miami.edu/.

  24. The Marxist Feminist Collective. “On Social Reproduction and the Covid-19 Pandemic.” Spectre Journal, April 2020, https://spectrejournal.com/seven-theses-on-social-reproduction-and-the-covid-19-pandemic/.